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ARMY MEDICAL LIBRARY 

WASHINGTON 

Founded 1836 




Section. 



Number 3.2LCL^-A-^. 



Fobm 113c, W. D., S. G. O. 
-10543 (Revised June 13, 1936) 



*ft**fc>£ v**\V*N 



j>**» »«* 



ELEMENTARY 



FOR THE 



DEAF AND DUMB 



BY SAMUEL ^KERLY, 

PHYSICIAN TO THE N. YORK INSTITUTION FOR THE INSTRUCTION 
OF THE DEAF AND DU1IB. 



ARRANGED 

BY ORDER OF THE BOARD OF DIRECTORS, 

UNDER THE INSPECTION OF THE 



ISAIAH, CHAP. 29, V. 18. 

•■ And in that Day shall the Deaf hear the Words of the Book" 




NEW-YORK : 

PRINTED BY E. CONRAD 

No.- 4, Frankfort-st. 
1821. 



A3He 




Southern District of New- York, ss. 

Be it Remembered, That on the 2Mh day of April, in 
the *5th year of the Independence of the United States of 
America, the Directors of the New- York Institution for the 
instruction of the Deaf and Dumb, of the said District, 
have deposited in this Office the title of a Book, the right 
whereof they claim as Proprietors, in the words and figures 
following, to wit : Elementary Exercises for the Deaf and 
Dumb, by Samuel Akerly, Physician to the New-York Institution for the 
Instruction of the Deaf and Dumb, arranged, by order of the Board of 
Directors, under the inspection of the Committee of Instruction. Isaiah, 
di. 29, v. 18, " And in that day shall the Deaf hear the Words of the 
Book'''' In conformity to the act of the Congress of the lfmledSt<ttet, s 'en- 
titled an act for the encouragement of learning, by securing. tl&kcqmc$ «/• 
maps, charts, and books, to the authors and proprietors of such copusTaur- 
ing the time therein mentioned." And also to an act, entitled " an act, sup- 
plementary to an act, entitled an act for the encouragement of learning, 
by securing the copies of maps, charts, and books to the authors and pro- 
prietors of such copies, during the times therein mentioned, and extending 
the benefits thereof to the arts of designing, engraving and etching historic- 
al and other prints,'" a. l. Thompson, Clerk of the Southern District of 
New- York. 



THE DIRECTORS 

OF THE 

Institution for the Instruction of the Deaf and Dumb, 

TO THEIR FELLOW CITIZENS. 



Three years have elapsed since the School was 
opened for teaching persons who are incapable of hear- 
ing and speaking; and during that time, eighty-two 
individuals have received the benefit of instruction. 
Many others have sought admission — But the funds do 
not at present permit the Directors to receive any more 
pupils, without at least a partial compensation. This 
painful necessity to which the Directors find themselves 
reduced of limiting their benevolence, emboldens them 
to make an appeal to the public. From the liberality 
heretofore manifested from this quarter, and from the 
bounty of the Legislature, they, entertain an expecta- 
tion that ample support will be afforded, and that the 
blessings of revealed religion, as well as the lights of 
knowledge, will continue to be shed upon these unfor- 
tunate members of the human family. 

The Directors have heretofore unsuccessfully appli- 
ed to Congress for a donation of land, whereby they 
might have been enabled to establish a permanent fund 
for their object. The application seems to have failed 



t ii ] 

from a belief that there were very few Deaf and Dumb 
.persons in the country, and that one School was suffici- 
ent to instruct them all. It appears, however, by an 
estimate derived from such data as we possess, that 
there is one Deaf and Dumb person for every two thou- 
sand of our population, or thereabout; that in the City 
of New-York the proportion is greater, there being one 
Deaf and Dumb person in every seventeen hundred, or 
nearly so. 

The petitions to the Legislature of the State have 
ever attracted respectful attention, and produced libe- 
ral donations. But, hitherto no permanent appropria- 
tions have been made, apparently because the establish- 
ment was in its infancy, and its administration not suffi- 
ciently tested by experience. 

The difficulty of procuring Teachers has been sur- 
mounted. The School is conducted by instructers who, 
in addition to capacity and kind dispositions, are zea- 
lously devoted to the great work of instructing their 
unfortunate pupils. 

The embarrassment experienced from the want of a 
plan or system of instruction, has also been removed. 
A Book ha<> been compiled, containing a series of Les- 
sons, in a regular and progressive order. This ele- 
mentary treatise is now in use, and its beneficial opera- 
tion is already manifest and acknowledged. The pub- 
lication of this elementary book, rendered more costly 
by reason of its numerous cuts, has added to the expense 
of the year; on which account, the small number of co- 
pies beyond the immediate supply of the School, are 
offered for sale, under a belief that persons of curious 
research into literature, and of friendly disposition to- 
ward the School, may be inclined to purchase. 



To all persons at a distance, and particularly to those 
who reside beyond the limits of this Commonwealth, 
the Directors take the opportunity of stating, that the 
annual charge for a pay-pupil is one hundred and se- 
venty dollars, including board, tuition, lodging, wash- 
ing, and mending; the pupils furnishing their own bed, 
bedding, and clothing. Tuition alone, is only an ex- 
pense of forty dollars yearly. 

The School at present contains fifty pupils, under 
the care of one female and two male Teachers. 

The Asylum has been newly organized and improv- 
ed. The sexes are separated, and accommodated in 
distinct houses. The males live with the Principal 
Teacher — the females are under the protection of the 
Superintendent. 

That nothing might be omitted that may have a ten- 
dency to preserve order and give satisfaction, the Asy- 
lum, and more especially the female department, is 
visited from time to time by an inspecting Committee of 
Ladies. Under their direction, the girls, when not en- 
gaged in the School, are exhorted to employ themselves 
in needle-work, and in other occupations suited to their 
situation. 

The School-rooms are in the New- York Institution, 
between the North Park and Chamber-street — where 
citizens, desirous of witnessing the method of instruc- 
tion and the improvement of the pupils, are admitted as 
visiters. 

Donations will be thankfully received, at the School, 
of any amount or description, however small. 

There also a book is kept for subscriptions, either by 
the year or for life. The payment of three dollars an- 



[ iv ] 

nually, constitutes a member — and of thirty dollars at 
one time, a member for life. Persons so contributing, 
have the right of voting at the election of Officers and 
Directors, at the annual meeting in May. 

They who wish further or more particular informa- 
tion, may receive it by applying to either of the Direc- 
tors, or to the Superintendent, at the Asylum, No. 72 
Chatham-street. 

In behalf of the Institution for the Deaf and Dumb, 
in the City of New- York, 

SAMUEL L. MITCHILL,-| 

STEPHEN ALLEN, 

CHARLES G. HAINES, [> Committee. 



PETER SHARPE, 
THOMAS FRANKLIN, 

JVew-JForfc, June 26th, 1821. 



} 



[ v ] 

OF 

THE NEW-YORK INSTITUTION 

FOR THE 

INSTRUCTION OF THE DEAF AND DUMB, 

Elected 22<l of May, 1821. 

Dr. SAMUEL L. MITCHILL, President. 
Rev. JAMES MILNOR, D. D. 1st Vice-President. 
SILVANUS MILLER, 2d Vice-President. 
General JONAS MAPES, Treasurer. 
Dr. SAMUEL AKERLY, Secretarv. 

STEPHEN ALLEN, JOHN SLIDELL, 

Rev. JOHN STANFORD, CHARLES G. HAINES, 

Rev. ALEX'R M'LEOD, RICHARD WHILEY, 

Rev. HENRY J. FELTUS, ISAAC COLLINS, 

Rev. PHILIP MILLEDOLER, DANIEL E. TYLEE, 

PETER SHARPE, THOMAS GIBBONS, 

GARRIT HYER, CURTIS BOLTON, 

RICHARD HATFIELD, AUSTIN L. SANDS, 

THOMAS FRANKLIN, GULIAN C. VERPLANCK. 
Dr. ALEX'R H. STEVENS, 

The Directors have appointed the following persons a 
Visiting Committee of Ladies, to visit the School and Asylum, 
and attend to the wants of the Pupils, viz. 

Mrs. ELLEN GALATIAN, Mrs. THOMAS STORM, 

CHARLOTTE BOOKER, WILLIAM WARNER, 

Dr. MITCHILL, GEORGE WARNER, 

C. D. COLDEN. THOS. CARPENTER. 



[ *l ] 

The Sehool is continued in a part of the New-York Insti- 
tution, where the Honourable the Corporation have provid- 
ed rooms. The Directors have made the following arrange- 
ment for the future government and direction of the School : 

Dr. SAMUEL AKERLY, Superintendent. 
Mr. HORACE LOOFBORROVV, Principal Teacher. 
Miss MARY STANSBURY, Assistant ditto. 
Mr. CLINTON MITCHILL, ditto ditto. 

The male and female Pupils are separated, the male un- 
der the care and direction of the Principal Teacher, at No. 
122 Lombardy-street, and the females under the care of the 
Superintendent, at No. 72 Chatham-street. 



During the delay caused by the sickness of the engraver, the Committee 
of Instruction have prepared the several articles forming the Appendix, 
which it is hoped will be interesting to the reading community, particu- 
larly that part relating to the infancy of Massieu, by himself. Massieu 
was born Deaf, near Bourdeaux, in France, became a pupil of the Abbe 
Sicard, and is now his Assistant, in Paris 

Laurent Clerc, another pupil of the Abbe Sicard, returning from a late 
visit to France, landed in New York, and was asked where Massieu was? 
to which he replied by signs, that Massieu was in Paris, with Sicard, and 
so strong was his attachment to his master, that he would live and die 
with him. 



ELEMENTARY 



1 T^iT^-lf^T^ ?$ T*^ 



FOR THE 



DEAF AND DUMB 



BY SAMUEL JLKEKLY, 

rilVSICIAN TO THE N. YORK institution for the instruction 



OF THE DEAF AND DUMB. 



ARRANGED, 

BY ORDER OF THE BOARD OF DIRECTORS, 

under the inspection of the 

COMMITTEE OF INSTRUCTION. 



ISAIAH, CH. 29, V. 18. 

And in that day shall the Deaf hear the words of the Book." 



new-york : 

PRINTED BY E. CONRAD, 

NO. 4, FRANKFORT-ST. 

1821. 




Asylum for the Deaf and Dumb, 

NEW-YORK, 29th JUNE, 1819. 

The Secretary reported, that the Certificate of Mem- 
bership had been printed under his direction, as designed 
by Dr. Mitchill, the President of the Institution. 

The Secretary also reported, that the Seal, on the 
margin of the Certificate, had also been designed by the 
President, to whom that subject was referred at a former 
meeting — that it had been engraved on wood, by Dr. An- 
derson ; from which the impression on the Certificate of 
Membership was made — and that the design is as follows : 
viz. 

JL human hand rising from the clouds, in the position 
of thefrst tetter of the Deaf and Dumb Alphabet, with the 
capital letter A, above it. Over the whole, in a wreath, are 
the Latin words << vicaria linguje manus," ivhich mean, 
that with the Leaf and Dumb, the hand performs the func- 
tions of the tongue. 



REPORT 



OF THE 



(TOMffiliTO^ ©» 3EHSffBW©ffI©a 



The Committee appointed to prepare a System of 
Elementary Education^ on behalf of the New- 
York Institution for the Instruction 6f 
the Deaf and Dumb, beg leave to submit the 
following 



The science of imparting instruction to the Deaf 
and Dumb, in schools and seminaries, according to the 
existing systems, is yet in its infancy, and must neces- 
sarily be open to great and radical improvements. 
Experience will suggest alterations, detect errors, and 
multiply inquiries and illustrations. The process of 
extending knowledge will become more brief, direct 
and efficient, as a more perfect acquaintance with the 
capacity of the Deaf and Dumb to receive it, is ob- 
tained, by practice and experiment. 

The want of a system, gradually to induct Deaf and 
Dumb pupils into a knowledge of written language, 
has been deeply felt by the institution for which your 
committee act; and they were compelled, in the dis- 
charge of their duty, to inquire into the manner of in- 



[ o ] 

structing Deaf Mutes in other countries, in order to de- 
termine upon a plan that would be applicable to our 
own situation and circumstances. They find that there 
are two principal methods of instruction — the French 
and the English. The English system contemplates 
the teaching of pupils to speak, and is generally adopt- 
ed in the different schools of Great Britain. The 
French system, by which this attempt is discarded, is 
almost universally approved of on the continent, and 
has received a preference in our own school. 

No doubt can be entertained, but that the Deaf and 
Dumb may be taught to speak, after about five year's 
instruction ; but when this faculty is obtained, it is im- 
perfect and difficult of exercise. The voice is disagree- 
able, harsh and monotonous, and the articulations pain- 
ful to the hearer. It has been observed in the schools 
of Europe, that when pupils are left to converse among 
themselves, that they never resort to oral communica- 
tion ; and when they leave the seminaries of instruc- 
tion, they soon cease to exercise the organs of speech, 
and sink into their former mute condition. A depriva- 
tion of the sense of hearing, and the difficulty of recol- 
lecting what muscles are brought into action, to effect 
the pronunciation of certain words, constrain them to 
a resort to their natural gestures, or to an expression 
of their ideas, by writing. It appears to the commit- 
tee, that the time consumed in teaching them elocution, 
could be more usefully devoted, in giving them a cor- 
rect knowledge of written language. 

Although it is not here intended to detract from the 
merits of Dr. Watson's Book, it must, however, be con- 
sidered as a partial and incomplete system. It contains 
only a short vocabulary of words, accompanied by a 



[ ? J 

promiscuous series of engravings, wholly destitute of 
explanation. Those who undertake to adopt it, in a 
course of instruction, will find themselves involved in 
difficulties and embarrassments. The introductory dis- 
course must, however, be viewed as deeply subserving 
the interests which the author labored to promote, and 
is a valuable acquisition to the world. 

The Abbe Sicard, who is the great benefactor of 
the Deaf and Dumb, on the continent of Europe, has 
improved upon his distinguished predecessor, the Abbe 
de L'Epee. He has written copiously on the subject 
under consideration, in his work entitled, A Course 
of Instruction for the Deaf and Dumb, and also 
in his subsequent work, The Theory of Signs. It is 
much to be regretted, that we have no translations of 
these two celebrated productions. Could the know- 
ledge which they impart, be extensively known in the 
United States, the necessity of sending to Europe for 
instructors to superintend the education of the Deaf 
and Dumb, would be obviated, and a clear and com- 
prehensive method secured. 

Mr. Gallaudet, the Principal of the Hartford In- 
stitution, in the State of Connecticut, has published a 
small work for the use of the pupils under his super- 
intendence. This is the only book of its kind, known 
in this country, and is the only one in the English lan- 
guage, which approaches to any thing like system. 
It consists of four parts. The first division contains 
thirty-six sections, each of which is intended for a les- 
son. The words of these lessons are principally sub- 
stantives, accompanied with a few verbs and adjec- 
tives. One section consists of prepositions, one of num- 
bers, and another embraces the conjugation of the 



[ s 3 
verbs. The second division contains twenty-eight sec- 
tions of short phrases, mostly agreeing with the les- 
sons of the first division, on the subject to which they 
rdate. The third part is a series of short sentences, 
succeeding each other, in promiscuous order, and is 
concluded by several dialogues, composed of brief 
questions and answers. And the last division is made 
up of short sentences, to illustrate and explain the de- 
grees of comparison, and the possessive pronouns. 
The use of several small words is ;ilso exemplified. 

This whole work contains about 3000 words and 
2000 sentences. Its utility is greatly diminished by 
the want of a simple and comprehensive key, and for 
our own institution, it is no better than any other school 
book of words and sentences. It is destitute of plates, 
introductory remarks, and annotations. 

The committee have now the pleasure of presenting 
to the board of directors, a system of instruction, 
which they ardently hope, will meet the great and sa- 
lutary purpose for which the institution in the city of 
New- York was established. It will make an octavo 
of nearly 300 pages, embracing that systematic ar- 
rangement, those explanations and figures, which can- 
not but greatly facilitate and simplify the attainment 
of knowledge, and prove of vast advantage, both to 
the teacher and the pupils. The committee cannot but 
indulge in the hope, that it may prove an advantage to 
other schools of the Deaf and Dumb, as well as to 
common schools, in opening to the minds of children, 
a correct knowledge of our language. 

The introductory remarks attached to the work 
herewith presented, explain the method of arrange- 
ment, and the manner in which teachers should pro- 



[ 9 ] 

ceed. These are so full, so clear, and so circumstan- 
tial, that it is unnecessary for us to say more, than that 
the system is an improvement upon all those which 
have preceded it, in the English language. It differs 
from that produced by Dr. Watson, in having a more 
extensive vocabulary of words, an equal number of 
figures marked and designated, and by entering imme- 
diately, simply, and progressively, into the construc- 
tion of the language. We consider it as possessing 
superior advantages to the work published at Hart- 
ford, inasmuch as the latter contains fewer words and 
sentences, no figures or explanations, and does not go 
so extensively into the nature of things, and a know- 
ledge of the English tongue. It adapts the French 
system to our dialect, is entire in itself, and cannot fail, 
in the estimation of your committee, of leading to an 
easy knowledge of written language. 

To Dr Samuel Akerly, the institution and the 
public are greatly indebted. To his zeal, abilities and 
industry, we owe the system now recommended for 
adoption. He has digested and arranged the mate- 
rials, and delineated more than 600 of the figures 
which accompany it. Amid other cares, and all the 
calls incident to professional pursuits, he has given way 
to the elevated feelings of humanity, and attended to 
the silent appeals of those unfortunate and helpless 
beings, whom God has precluded from expressing their 
wants, or describing their afflictions. Animated by a 
sense of duty, and the hope of serving the great inte- 
rests of benevolence, he has patiently overcome obsta- 
cles, and devoted many months to labors and details, 
little compatible with intellectual pleasure, or the ex- 
tension of personal fame. While we feel sensible that 



L 10 ] 

his services have not been bestowed in vain, We alse 
feel confident that his praises will be treasured up, in 
the grateful recollections of an intelligent and reflect- 
ing community. 

The committee, in terminating one of the most diffi- 
cult duties which has ever been assigned to any por- 
tion of the board, feel bound to express a hope, that 
the directors of the institution will not forget the inte- 
rests entrusted to their zeal, fidelity and perseverance. 
It is vain that a new system of instruction is prepared 
and adopted, if the means of applying it shall be want- 
ing. Much remains to be done. To place the insti- 
tution on that solid basis of pecuniary independence, 
that will comport with its nature and success; to pour 
into it those steady streams of patronage, which flow 
from the liberality of an enlightened government; to 
render it the permanent and happy asylum of those un- 
fortunate and neglected members of the human family, 
whose privations call for the guardian expressions of 
compassion and benevolence, should be the end of our 
common and ardent exertions. At a period when the 
diffusion of civilization and knowledge is illumining 
the darkest regions of the globe ; when an unseen and 
omnipotent arm is stretched out for the redemption of 
tribes and empires from the shackles of ages ; when the 
metropolis in which we live, and the state to which we 
belong, are so zealously devoted to a cause that em- 
braces the improvement and happiness of mankind ; 
deeply would it be deplored, if one of the noblest asso- 
ciations that has ever sprung from the efforts of an 
active and practical charity, should be suffered to 
waste away under the cold and depressing tendency of 
public neglect. Rather may it stand to commemorate 



t " ] 

the spirit of the age, and embolden, exalt and invigo- 
rate, tbc views and efforts of posterity ! 

SAM'L L. MITCHILL, 

JAMES M1LNOR, 

CHARLES G. HAINES, { Commitle ^ 

ALEX. M'LEOD, 

New- York, October, 1820. 



mmwwAi 



ADDRESSED TO THE 

COMMITTEE OF INSTRUCTION. 



The following plan of teaching Deaf Mutes is, with 
deference, submitted to the committee of instruction. 
It is an elementary work for the instruction of that 
unfortunate class of human beings, whose numbers are 
not small, and whose tongues are locked up in pro- 
found silence, and unable to relate the history of their 
own privations. 

The New- York Institution for the Instruction of the 
Deaf and Dumb, has been more than two years in suc- 
cessful operation. The number of Deaf Mutes that 
have been received in the school, from different parts 
of the state and the adjoining states, together with in- 
formation collected of many others, has excited the 
astonishment of all, as to the number actually living 
who require instruction, and who, without it, must re- 



[ 12 ] 

main passive beings, a burthen to their friends and to 
society, and who must continue forever in the obscurity 
of mental darkness, without the aids of reason or of 
revelation. 

Before this institution went into operation, so igno- 
rant were we of the extent of the calamity of deafness 
in our own country, that doubts existed as to the 
propriety of opening a school for the Deaf and Dumb, 
on the presumption that their number would not war- 
rant the exertion or expense. After numerous meet- 
ings and discussions on the subject, these doubts were 
removed, by a report of the several committees ap- 
pointed in 1816, in which the names of more than sixty 
were enumerated, then residing in the city of New- 
York. In some parts of the city the committees did 
not act, and the report was incomplete, but it was be- 
lieved that there were at least seventy in the whole; 
being, according to the present population of New- 
York, about one in 1700. 

These facts led to a plan for collecting the pupils, ■ 
and organizing a school for the Deaf and Dumb, which 
was opened in May, 1818. The school has flourished, 
and the pupils have increased, and it has been a pleas- 
ing spectacle to the directors of this institution, as well 
as many others who have visited the school, to see 
their thirst for knowledge, and their aptitude in acquir- 
ing information. The method which has been pursued 
in teaching the Deaf and Dumb in this institution, is 
substantially that of the Abbe Sicard ; but" the manner 
has been very desultory. Hence the principal teacher 
recommended the digesting a plan which should be 
systematic and progressive, and adapt the French me- 
thod to the English language. This subject having 



I 13 ] 

been under the consideration of the directors, was re- 
ferred to the committee of instruction, and the outline 
of a plan having been submitted to them by one of 
their members, the writer was requested to proceed, 
which has caused the ensuing plan to be now submit- 
ted for their inspection and approbation. 

Since the opening f the school in New- York, sixty- 
nine pupils have been received, and from information 
obtained, there appears to be Deaf Mutes in the state, 
of a proper age for instruction, sufficient to supply a 
constant series of pupils for an institution of the kind. 
One other fact has been developed by inquiry, showing 
that there will always be pupils requiring instruction 
and the aid of benevolence. It is ascertained that a 
majority of the pupils who have been received in the 
New-York Institution for the Instruction of the Deaf 
and Dumb, became deaf from sickness, and were not 
born so. The subject acquires additional importance 
from this fact, inasmuch as all children are liable to 
become deaf from sickness, and dumbness follows. 
The most general idea that prevails on the subject is, 
that the Deaf and Dumb are [e\v in number, and that 
their deafness arises from original mal-conformation. 
From the proportion of Deaf Mutes in the city, there 
are supposed to be more than 500 in the State of 
New-York, and at least 5000 in the United States. 
This offers an argument in favor of institutions for the 
Deaf and Dumb; and as all cannot be accommodated 
in one establishment, other schools must arise in other 
of our principal cities and states. If, therefore, they 
are to be taught, they should be instructed after a 
method that is regular, systematic and progressive. 
Such the following professes to be. 



[ 14 1 

The best method of teaching the Deaf and Dumb 
is that of the French, as detailed in the works of the 
Abbe Sicard. These are his Cours <V instruction (Tun 
Sourd-Muet cle naissance, and his Theorie des Signcs. 
In the work herewith presented to the committee, an 
attempt is made to adapt his system to the English lan- 
guage, with alterations and amendments, which wc 
shall proceed to explain. 

The great object of the work is to give to the Deaf 
and Dumb, a knowledge of spoken language, as it is 
written in English. The celebrated Abbe Sicard has 
done this in French, suitable to the idioms of that 
tongue, by converting the universal language of signs 
into the corresponding signs for words spoken. The 
principles are laid down in his writings, but the detail 
is left as a task for future teachers. The great out- 
line by the French master is applicable, mutatis mu- 
tandis, to the instruction of the Deaf and Dumb in our 
vernacular tongue. In executing the charge assigned 
to the writer, the authors extant on the subject were 
necessarily consulted; and besides the Abbe Sicard's 
works, Dr. Watson's book, and that of the Hartford 
Institution in Connecticut, are the only practical ones 
that have fallen into his hands. Speculative works, 
and those in which the subject is abstractedly consi- 
dered, have been of little or no service. The subject 
of education generally has occupied his attention, and 
he has been aided in the consideration of it, by the 
perusal of other school books not intended for the Deaf 
and Dumb. Among these, the school books of Mr. 
Albert Pickett, of New- York, are acknowledged with 
pleasure, and Dufiefs Nature Displayed, as well as the 
Orbis Pictus of Comenius, for teaching Latin. 



I 15 } 

The subject matter of the work presented to the 
consideration of the committee, is divided into eighty- 
five exercises. These are not of any determinate 
length; some being shorter, and some longer, accord- 
ing to the particular point to be illustrated. It will, of 
course, be left to the teachers to divide them into sec- 
tions or lessons, suitable to the capacity or progress of 
the pupil. 

The Deaf and Dumb are to be taught by natural 
signs, converting them into written signs, which are 
the representatives of spoken language. This then is 
only translating one language into another. Whoever 
attends to their instruction will find that their language 
is well understood by one another, and that they have 
a capacity, and an aptitude to learn, surprising to all. 
When they shall have become acquainted with written 
language, the object of instruction is in a great mea- 
sure obtained. They will then be more nearly on a 
par with their fellow creatures; and as they can com- 
municate by writing, their signs and gestures will be 
laid aside, except with one another. This is to be 
explained on the same principle that two persons who 
can speak a foreign language, use it when in a foreign 
country, but when they meet or return home, they use 
their vernacular tongue When Deaf Mutes become 
sufficiently acquainted with written language, as easily 
and readily to translate signs into words, there can be 
no limit to the extent of their acquirements, and parents 
may teach their children according to the abundance 
of their means. 

In taking a view of the work which is to lead to a 
result so desirable, it may be examined with respect to 



[ 1« ] 

three points. ]. The teaching of letters. 2. The 
teaching of words ; and 3. The teaching of sentences. 

I. The Teaching of Letters. The first step in 
teaching the Deaf and Dumb is the same as that of 
other children, who are first taught their letters. The 
letters of the alphabet are represented by manual signs, 
which the pupil is practised in by means of engravings, 
with the letters over their respective signs. The capa- 
city and memory of the Deaf and Dumb is generally 
so good, that they learn their letters with a great deal 
of facility. When they have arrived at or near to 
adult age, and their hands have been stiffened with 
work, there is sometimes an awkwardness in acquiring 
the proper position of the fingers, but no difficulty in 
recollecting them. 

The signs that have been adopted in this school, are 
those of the single-handed alphabet of the Abbe de 
L'Epee and Sicard. Some of the pupils, of their own 
accord, have learned the double-handed alphabet of 
Dr. Watson, as used in England. This alphabet is 
inferior to that of the French, and is a strong evidence 
of national prejudice in adopting a bad plan, when a 
better was known and at hand. We cannot orive a 
stronger objection to the English alphabet, than was 
made by Richard Sip, of New-Jersey, one of the pupils 
of this institution, on comparing it with the French, 
both of which he had learned. On opening Dr. Wat- 
son's book, he went on to show that he could not hold 
it, as he wanted the use of both hands in making the 
letters. If he laid it down the leaves would close, and 
he was therefore under the necessity of taking it in his 
mouth, which was ridiculous, and then he could hardly 
see. After this exhibition he put the book on the table. 



[ w ] 

and made the sign for had. But the French alphabet, 
he next proceeded to show, was best, because he could 
hold the book with one hand, and make the letters with 
the other. 

It requires patience and perseverance to teach the 
Deaf and Dumb; and as the preliminary, steps are all 
important, it will not be amiss to detail them. 

The pupil is taught by the teacher, to put his hand 
in the various positions which are to correspond with 
the letters, and he is exercised in a three-fold manner, 
after acquiring the free use of the figures. 1. By giv- 
ing the signs, with the letters and figures before him. 
This step is no other than learning a child his letters 
in a book : 2. By giving the signs from memory, with- 
out ihc letters or figures before him ; equivalent to 
learning other children their letters by sound, out of 
the book : and 3. By using the proper signs for the let- 
ters by themselves. Thus one sign is converted into 
another, and he is prepared to spell a word, whenever 
the letters meet his eye. This process of acquiring the 
alphabet, becomes in a short time so familiar, that the 
pupils can place the hand in all the positions of the 
letters, quicker than they can be spoken. 

The letters by which the pupil is first taught are 
the printed letters. The next step is to convert printed 
characters into written ones, and to show their corres- 
ponding signs, which are the same for both. He is 
thus taught to know that there are different ways of 
making the same letter, for which he has one invaria- 
ble sign, and he is progressively to learn the large and 
small letters, the Roman and Italic, as his recollection 



[ 13 J 

is soon to be put to the test, in spelling words from the 
book which will be put into his hands. 

Having learned to distinguish the different kinds of 
printed letters, as well as written characters, the suc- 
ceeding step is that of making the latter upon the slate 
or black-board. He is thus gradually prepared to pro- 
ceed to words which are required to be written on the 
slate. As the Deaf and Dumb learn by the eye, they 
have a wonderful aptitude and facility in learning to 
write. Where children are very young, there is a 
greater difficulty in fixing their attention; but Deaf 
Mutes, at an age between 12 and 16 years, which is 
the best period for their instruction, learn to imitate 
written characters with surprising quickness. There 
is no loss of pen, ink or paper, as the slate is employed 
till the pupils can readily make the letters ; and from 
the small slate they are transferred to the black-board 
or telegraph, where the pupils must stand, by which 
means they learn the free use of the hand, and make 
handsome round letters. This kind of exercise is at- 
tended to while they are acquiring a knowledge of let- 
ters and words. Hence they learn to write a correct 
and plain hand, soon after their attention is fixed ; and 
this is done by means of the slate, before they are re- 
quired to write on paper. 

II. The Teaching of Words. The first words 
necessary to be learned by the Deaf and Dumb, are 
those which can be represented by sensible objects, 
the figures of which accompany the words. Here the 
same method may be pursued as was adopted by the 
Abbe Sicard, with his protege Massieu. Take for in- 
stance, one of the words in the first lessons of figures. 



[ 19 ] 

Let the word be Cat. Sicard, before he became suffi- 
ciently acquainted with the method of imparting in- 
struction to Deaf Mutes, adopted a plan upon which 
he afterwards improved, and finally reduced it to the 
following system. 

I want to inform the pupil what object is represented 
by the letters C A T. He knows what positions of 
the hand will represent the letters individually, but is 
ignorant of their conjoint meaning. I therefore pro- 
duce a Cat, and with a significant look of inquiry, de- 
sire to know what it is. The pupil makes a gesture, 
which is the sign-name of that object. The animal is 
removed, and its figure being sketched on the black- 
board with chalk, the word Cat is written on the body 
of the figure. He is made to spell the word with the 
hand, and then the figure is rubbed out and the word 
left, and for that word the same sign is substituted, 
which was made for the cat when present, or for its 
figured representation. Thus a significant gesture or 
mute sign of the Deaf and Dumb, is converted into the 
letters or sound of the word Cat. 

In the same way a bug 7 a hat, a key, or any other 
«bject, is made familiar to him; so that whenever he 
sees the word written, he will make the sign for it, or 
point to it if in view. The above method is not neces- 
sary with every word, or with every pupil. Some 
being more intelligent or older than others, catch the 
idea intended to be conveyed with great facility, and 
do not require the whole process. Besides this, the 
signs for most objects being determined upon, the 
teacher has only to write the word and show the 
figure. The pupil spells the name of the object, and 
the teacher gives the sign. 



[ 20 ] 

It is highly gratifying to sec with what surprise 
some of these unfortunate beings express themselves, 
when they can write the name of an object that has 
been familiar to them. Their attention being fixed, 
they become anxious to learn, and are inquisitive to 
know the written names of things, which they treasure 
up in their memory by repeatedly spelling the words. 
A striking instance of this was exhibited in the school, 
in a young man who had been employed on a farm in 
the neighborhood of New-York. He was well ac- 
quainted with the raising of Indian corn, (zea maize) 
and depredations committed on it by the crows : but he 
was astonished that we could represent a bird (which 
he well knew) by the four letters CROW. To 
show that he was not ignorant of the nature of the 
bird, he went on to explain by significant gestures, its 
habits and manner of destroying the young corn, and 
gave such a minute description of every thing relating 
to it, that showed him to be a great observer; and the 
gestures were so intelligent, and the facts so correct, 
that his story was highly diverting and very interesting. 

In order to be progressive in teaching the pupils of 
our institution a knowledge of words, such as could be 
represented by sensible objects have been collected 
and arranged into several exercises. 

The fourth exercise, which contains the first lesson 
of words, is composed of those of three letters, with 
their objects delineated. Words of four letters, of 
five, of six or more letters, and compound words follow 
in succeeding exercises. A uniform plan has been 
adopted in each of these exercises of words. The 
object is delineated with its name over or by the side 
of it The pupil spells the word and the sign is given. 



[ 21 ] 

The first series of figures is a lesson to be studied till 
he acquires the names and the signs. The next exer- 
cise is a repetition of the same figures without their 
names. These objects he is required to recollect, by 
giving the proper sign, by spelling the word, and by 
writing it on the slate, (if he has yet learned to write.) 
The exercise which follows is a repetition of the same 
words in columns, apart from the figures. These are 
designed for the third method of exercising the pupil 
as to the object now converted into a word. With the 
book before him, or the words written on a slate, he is 
required to spell the word, and again recollect the 
sign. Or the pupils taken together in a class, will be 
exercised by the teacher alternately, by giving to them 
the sign, upon which one of them will spell the word 
or write it on the slate. A perfect knowledge of the 
import of a word is thus conveyed to the Deaf and 
Dumb, by means of figures. Where objects are de- 
lineated that seldom meet the observation of a Deaf 
Mute, it may be found necessary to show the original, 
as in the instance of the Cat. 

If the pupil has made some progress, the preceding 
details may be unnecessary ; as on seeing the object, 
he will require only to have the name written. To 
save the trouble of repeated delineation of figures, and 
the addition of others to those already figured, it would 
be proper to attach a cabinet to the school, where 
should be collected and preserved as specimens for use 
on proper occasions, such imperishable articles which 
might serve as the basis for other lessons to the pupils, 
and lectures from the teacher. Here might be pre- 
served fruits, nuts, seeds, the denominations of money, 
weights, measures, &c. The pupils should also have 



[ M J 

access to other cabinets. The Lyceum of Natural His- 
tory of New- York, and Mr. Scudder's American Mu- 
seum, would afford great scope for inculcating a know- 
ledge of the visible world. The Abbe Sicard took his 
pupils to visit all places of manufacture and the arts in 
Paris, to enlarge the sphere of their ideas. This might be 
done in New- York, with the same manifest advantage. 

Thus far, however, no words are explained but those 
which can be represented by sensible objects. Among 
these may be arranged the parts of the human body, 
which occupy the 15th and 18th Exercises. The de- 
lineation of these are unnecessary, as the parts can be 
pointed out, and all the pupil requires to know is, that 
the word hand means that part of the body which is 
shown to him. Here we have an opportunity of in- 
creasing the stock of words without additional figures, 
and likewise of analysing and combining parts into a 
whole. 

Among the figures will be found a svjord. On a 
holyday one of my children was presented with a 
wooden toy-sword. He very soon broke it, and came 
to me to mend it. The occasion was taken to teach 
him the different parts of it, and enlarge his stock of 
words, in the same way as that and every sensible 
object might be analysed for the Deaf and Dumb. 

The sword being entire, the name was required, 
which was spoken. The belt was removed, and he 
still called it a sword. The part separated, he was 
informed, was a belt, or a sword-belt. I drew it from 
its sheath, and he yet called it a sword. But if that is 
the sword, what is this? He replied, it is a case. 
True, it is a case, or a sword-case ; but the case of a 
sword has a particular name and is called a scabbard. 



[ 23 ] 

Now we have a sword without a belt or scabbard. 
The handle was then broken off. What is it now ? A 
sword he replied. No : it is a broken sword. Let us 
look at its parts. This is the handle of the sword, 
which has a guard and hilt. The remaining part is 
the blade, or sword-blade, which has an edge, a back, 
sides, and a point. Here, by the analysis of a sword, 
we add fourteen or fifteen words to his stock of ideas. 
The same may be done with other objects. 

Thus too we may analyse parts of the human body, 
or combine them into a whole. The hand is composed 
of a thumb, fingers, nails, the palm and the back of the 
hand. The fingers have sides, joints, ends, knuckles. 
The whole of these parts make up the hand. So the 
head has its parts, and each part has its sub-divisions 
or other parts. This is the method of Sicard. 

Another class of words to be taught the Deaf and 
Dumb, are those substantives which most frequently 
occur to the observation of all persons, some of which 
may, but most of which cannot be well represented by 
images. These words are introduced in different exer- 
cises, under the heads of man and his correlatives; arti- 
cles of clothing; food, and its kinds; household and 
table furniture; a house, its parts and materials; school 
and its appendages ; meals, and their parts ; year, and 
the seasons ; water and its conditions ; wind and wea- 
ther; states of being; church, and its parts; materials 
of dress ; employments and trades ; tools and instru- 
ments, and a city and its parts. These exercises are 
not in regular succession, but disposed with intervening 
exercises, that the pupil may not be fatigued with the 
acquisition of names only. These names are arranged 
in marginal columns, after the manner of Dufief, with 



[ w j 

short and familiar sentences opposite to them, in which 
the marginal word is introduced to explain its use in 
composition, and teach them the structure of the lan- 
guage. These words were at first arranged in lessons 
by themselves, and at every interval of three or four 
lessons, a similar series of sentences, with the words 
introduced. I was induced to alter this plan, and im- 
mediately enter into the structure of phrases as soon as 
the pupil's acquisition of words would allow. Dufief, 
in his " Nature Displayed in teaching Language to 
Man" has well explained the natural method by which 
we all acquire our vernacular tongue, which is appli- 
cable to the acquisition of all spoken languages, as well 
as to a language for the Deaf and Dumb. I was fur- 
ther confirmed in the propriety of this measure, by the 
observation of one of our teachers. He had given les- 
sons on parts of the body, in columns of words written 
on the slate, and continued to exercise the pupils on 
these words, by spelling and by signs, extending the 
practice to other words taken from the examples in 
Dr. Watson's vocabulary. A sprightly little girl of 
eight or nine years old, would copy the lessons on her 
slate, and readily learn them ; but when called up to 
the black-board to be exercised, she expressed her dis- 
approbation at learning words in columns, and signified 
her wish to have words written across the slate, ex- 
pressive of something more than a single word. 

The plan herein adopted enters immediately into 
the construction of language, which we speak, and 
which we render visible by writing. The Deaf and 
Dumb have also a visible language, which is to be 
translated word for word into our own. The untaught 
Deaf Mute, as relates to our language, is in the con- 



t 25 ] 

dition of a child who is learning to speak. The first 
words caught by the ear are mamma, papa, and other 
easy and labial sounds. As the stock of words increase, 
the child puts them together to express its wants. 
These words are at first all nouns, as mamma, cake; 
mamma, tea; mamma, bread, butter; instead of mamma, 
1 want cake ; mamma, / want tea, or mamma, give me 
some bread and butter. The child is afterwards taught 
by its mother to introduce the elliptical words, and thus 
by practice teaches it language. By proceeding in the 
same way, we may teach the Deaf and Dumb a correct 
and grammatical construction of language, by a pro- 
gressive series of lessons. 

After the noun, the adjective occupies our attention. 
It is not necessary to delay its employment till our 
pupils acquire a large stock of words. They soon 
learn the distinction between a boy and a girl, and as 
readily the qualities of good and bad, and hence they 
easily understand the meaning of a good girl, or a bad 
boy. If the deaf pupil is of a proper age, he soon 
acquires his letters and the names of a number of ob- 
jects, and thus he finds that his signs for these objects 
are convertible into written characters or signs, or are 
translated into another kind of visible language. Hence 
he has no difficulty in acquiring a knowledge of adjec- 
tives. They appear to him as other names or nouns. 
A little boy, or a little girl, a large house, or a large 
slate, are easily explained to him, and being visible ob- 
jects, are new names to be added to his vocabulary of 
knowledge. 

The 8th Exercise in our series of lessons, contains 
examples of adjectives united with the preceding list 
of nouns, in the 7th Exercise. To these words are 

n 



[ 26 ] 

prefixed the articles a and the ; as, a long pen, the long 
pen, &c. The 1th, 5th and 6th Exercises contain the 
word pen, and in the 7th the articles are added, as a 
pen, and the pen, in order to explain the use and appli- 
cation of these particles. The pupil may be desired 
in his own language, to bring a pen from a number 
placed on the table for the purpose, which he will rea- 
dily perform. So he may be directed to bring the long 
pen, by which he learns that the helps to define the 
object, while a does not. It will be as easy likewise 
to inform him that an is used instead of a before words 
beginning with the letters we call vowels. 

The adjective, as a word qualifying the substantive, 
is more difficult to explain to the Deaf and Dumb. It 
requires a degree of abstraction to which they are not 
competent in the beginning of their instruction ; and 
although they understand the words a bad boy, a little 
girl, &c. these words and all other adjectives under simi- 
lar arrangement, are no other than compound words, or 
names for objects, and are in fact substantives, as much 
as riding-chair, new-moon, looking-glass, broad- axe, 
bee-hive, &c. But when we alter the construction of the 
phrase, and by adding a verb, separate the quality from 
the object, there is a material difference in the idea con- 
veyed, and to those already acquainted with language, 
the abstraction is evident ; and this is to be made intel- 
ligent to the Deaf and Dumb. If instead of writing a 
small fly, a large house, we write the fly is small, and 
the house is large, the natural signs by which these 
ideas are conveyed to them, are easily understood ; but 
the abstraction and the reason of it is more difficult. 

The Abbe Sicard, however, has endeavored to ex- 
plain the nature of the adjective to the Deaf and 



t 



27 



] 



Dumb, by a method of abstracting the inherent quality 
of the object, as in the example of Papier rouge, or 
red paper. Red being the quality of the paper, is in- 
herent in the substance of the object, and is therefore 
a part of the same. Hence he first wrote the object 
PAPER in large letters, with a space between them, in 
which spaces he wrote the qualifying adjective, thus : 



I g E 



R. 



The object and its quality being here united, require 
to be separated, and this is performed by withdrawing 
the intermediate letters, thus : 

P . A . P . I . E . R 



The name of the quality is now abstracted, but not 
in the position which the construction of the language 
requires ; therefore the following diagram reduces it 
to its proper place. 

PrAoPuIgEeR 



I 



E 



R 



g e 

I : E : R r o 



u S 



[ 28 ] 

The words are now to be divested of their connect- 
ing lines, and written as follows : 

P .. A .. P .. I .. E .. R . . . . R .. O .. U .. G .. E. 

Here the quality and object are completely sepa- 
rated, but the spaces which they occupied when united, 
are distinguished by the dots. The phrase by ellipsis 
is now completed as follows. 

PAPIER ROUGE. 

In the same manner the abstraction of the quality of 
any other objects is effected ; as black hat, white hands, 
round ball, green tree, &c. This process may be re- 
peated, till by practice, the pupil becomes acquainted 
with the nature of the adjective, and learns that it is 
not a part of the substantive, but a quality, and may 
be withdrawn, while the object still continues, without 
loss of substance. The same process is applicable to 
our language only by turning the lines of abstraction 
to the left, and placing the adjective before the noun, 
as in RED PAPER. 

HI. Teaching of Sentences. Verbs compose the 
next class of words to be taught and explained to the 
Deaf and Dumb, after nouns and adjectives, and this 
carries us into the structure of sentences. We cannot 
make an affirmation without a verb, which is the sign 
of an action performed. With a noun, an adjective 
and a verb (which are essential to language) the Deaf 
and Dumb express all their ideas. The particles or 
connecting words are not used by them until they are 
taught. Thus, suppose one of our Deaf Mutes wanted 



[ 29 ] 

to communicate to me, that Aaron Day is going in the 
country, and will return in four weeks ; he would ex- 
press it after the following manner. Aaron Day (by 
his sign name) country go, four weeks return. Or, 
Geo. D. Holkins is gone to Albany, and will not 
return; thus, G. D. Holkins, Albany go, return not. 
This manner of expression is natural to children in 
learning their mother tongue, and is used till they are 
corrected by practice, and taught the construction of 
artificial language. I remember the first sentence 
made by a nephew of Dr. Mitchill, on observing a 
flock of geese descend a steep hill in the country, 
which the child observed from the door of his father's 
house. He cried out in his uncorrected dialect, with 
the earnestness of a discoverer, mother, mother, goosey, 
down hill, come. This natural mode of expression is 
retained in the Latin language, where the object is first 
named, the verb expressive of the action next, and the 
person or object to which the action relates, last ; as 
Pomum da mihi, fruit give me, instead of give me fruit. 
So our children say, mamma, cake give baby. In teach- 
ing the Deaf and Dumb, we take advantage of this 
natural and untaught method of expression, to convey 
to them the proper style of writing their ideas. If it 
is discovered that a pupil does not readily comprehend 
an expression, the teacher endeavors to write it as the 
Deaf Mute would express it, and then by different 
modes of expressing the same ideas, at last arrive at 
that which is the most correct. In the course of our 
exercises, there are many examples of sentences ex- 
pressing the same idea by different words. In explain- 
ing these, one may be more readily comprehended 
than the other; and when one is understood, it is easy 



C 30 ] 

to convey the information, that the other means the 
same thing, and thus the knowledge of the language is 
extended. 

In order to be progressive in the construction of sen- 
tences, the auxiliary verbs to be, and to have, are the 
first that are employed. The ninth in our series of 
exercises has all the words of the sixth introduced, and 
the quality of the object affirmed by the verb to be; 
as, the ox is biz;, the jit/ is small, &c. The next les- 
son on verbs is contained in the 17th Exercise, in which 
those are introduced which are expressive of some of 
the first necessary actions of life; as to eat, to drink, to 
sleep, &c. These words are arranged in the margin, 
opposite to which are found the sentences, 

I eat, thou eatest, he eats. We eat dinner. 
I drink, thou drinkest, he drinks. They drink water. 

This arrangement is not introduced for the purpose 
of entering into the science of grammar, but to allow 
the teacher to go through the different parts of the 
verb, and explain the extent and variety of expression, 
which a few words may give; as I drink tea, I drink 
tea in the morning, I drink tea morning and evening, 
I drink tea twice a day, I drink tea with milk, &c. 
A similar arrangement is followed in the 23d and 26th 
Exercises, in which the teacher will be required to 
vary the expression in going through with the different 
parts of the verb. I conceive that thus it is possible 
to teach the Deaf and Dumb, as well as other children, 
the proper construction of the language by example, 
followed by practice, without the aid of grammar. So 
we learn our own, and so we learn a foreign language. 



[ 31 ] 

A person who learns a language by grammatical rule, 
finds the few examples given in illustration, of little 
use, unless by frequency of repetition, he becomes 
familiar with the rule. The same may be done with 
the Deaf and Dumb, who require a repetition of exam- 
ples written in correct language, the grammar of which 
may be afterwards taught them, if circumstances should 
warrant, or friends desire it. Marginal columns of 
verbs, with examples by short sentences in different 
tenses, occupy the 44th, 57th, 64th and 65th Exer- 
cises. These do not contain examples in all the tenses. 
The 44th is an exercise on the natural divisions of 
time, into present, past and future; the 57th a promis- 
cuous one on different parts of the verb, and the 65th 
is an exercise on the infinitive mood. In the 64th are 
collected all the verbs that have been used in preced- 
ing exercises, and conjugated by the present tense, the 
imperfect tense, and the perfect or past participle. 
These verbs are arranged under the several heads of 
regular and irregular verbs, verbs of no variation, and 
impersonal verbs. The teacher is to furnish the exam- 
ples of construction. Other exercises, as the 33d, 34th, 
48th, 49th, 50th, 51st, 52d and 55th, contain promis- 
cuous sentences, without reference to marginal words. 
These are introduced to prevent too great a uniformity 
from fatiguing the attention of the pupil. 

Some of our exercises are designed to make the 
pupil acquainted with the use of other parts of speech 
in the construction of the English language. The 
45th contains a list of the principal prepositions, with 
an explanatory sentence of the word italicised, the bet- 
ter to distinguish the manner of using it. This, like 



[ 32 ] 

the other lessons, will serve as a model to the teacher 
to construct other sentences, and place the required 
words in all the variety of positions that the language 
will admit. This exercise on the prepositions is pre- 
ceded by a picture containing a group of figures, by 
means of which, many of this class of words are ex- 
plained, and their meaning and application rendered 
familiar and visible. This design of our late superin- 
tendent, as far as it goes to explain the prepositions, is 
better than the diagram of Home Tooke, for the same 
purpose. 

The use of adverbs and conjunctions, in the compo- 
sition of written language, is explained in the 46th and 
47th Exercises. 

Examples of the use of the pronouns are introduced 
in the 16th Exercise, soon after the use of the auxiliary 
verbs. They are arranged under the several heads of, 
1. Personal Pronouns. 2. Personal Pronouns declined. 
3. Possessive. 4. Distributive. 5. Demonstrative; and 
6. Indefinite. These become necessary, particularly 
the personal pronouns, immediately after the formation 
of a sentence containing a proposition, or affirmation 
of a fact. 

We are naturally led to the use of the personal pro- 
nouns, when teaching the first elements of a proposi- 
tion after the manner of Sicard. The example of 
papier rouge, or red paper, together with the diagrams 
in the preceding pages, carry us forward to the object. 
The words thus written constitute the name of one 
thing; but with the help of an auxiliary verb, we are 
to make a proposition, or to affirm the quality of the 
substantive, by the verb to be. According to the pre- 



I 33 ] 

ceding example, the words were reduced from their 
united condition to a separate state, thus : 

PAPIER ROUGE. 

The dotted line was left to indicate that it occupied 
the place of some other word, which being introduced, 
completed the proposition. 

Papier est rouge. 
Paper is red. 

Thus the good Abbe went on exercising Massieu 
with other words, till he became so well acquainted 
with the qualities of some objects, that he could detect 
them when not placed in their proper positions. Thus 
he transposed the words, and left it to his favorite pupil 
to unite them. 



Chapeau 
Muchoir^ 
Boule 



Arb 



re -- 



...-••■> v 



\.s'-" 



Sang .:^f \^ 
Banc/" 

Couteau 



long. 
'' ,,verd. 
_ rouge. 

\ noir. 

v blanc. 
tranchant. 

\ rond. 



On these lines he wrote the word est, (fe») and then 
reduced them to the simple propositions which follow. 



E 



[ 34 ] 

Chapeau est noir. Hat is black. 

Mouchoir est blanc. Handkerchief is white. 

Boule est rond. Ball is round. 

Arbre est verd. Tree is green. 

Sang est rouge. Blood is red. 

Banc est long. Bench is long. 

Couteau est tranchant. Knife is sharp. 

Our teachers have been successful in pursuing this 
method, and applying it to extended sentences. 

A proposition being completed and understood, the 
pronoun arose to save repetition and shorten labor, 
thus: 

Albert is a Deaf Mute. 
Albert is good: or, 
Albert is a Deaf Mute. 
He is good. 

And so of the other personal pronouns. 

Sicard has gone into laborious explanations, to show 
that his pupil Massieu understood the abstract consi- 
deration of the subject as he proceeded, and as he has 
explained it in his Cours d' instruction (Vun Sourd-Muet 
de naissance. But it is thought that his reasoning, his 
deductions, and his luminous explanations of an obscure 
art, are rather the cogitations of his own mind, than 
the evidence of Massieu's understanding it. Our exer- 
cises are founded on the belief, that it is not necessary 
to inform the Deaf and Dumb of the abstract consi- 
derations which induced the teacher to adopt a parti- 
cular plan of instruction, but only to convey to him the 
method of converting his language of signs into writ- 
ing. The pupil understands one language, the instruc- 



[ 35 ] 

lor two. The pupil can therefore converse with his 
instructor, and the latter, by progressive steps, can con- 
vert the dumb signs of his pupil into the written ones 
which he does not know. The issue of this plan is not 
problematical. Our pupils have given evidence that it 
will succeed. The Deaf Mute learns the letters by 
his manual signs, to unite letters into words, and words 
into sentences. 

The exercises on the different parts of speech have 
already been referred to. There are some other points 
to be noticed in the work before us. The 35th Exer- 
cise on numbers, is preparatory to arithmetic, but not 
for the purpose of so soon entering into that subject, 
as it must be the task of more advanced scholars.* 

The 56th is a short exercise on colors, which it is 
proposed to have painted on the walls of the school- 
room, that the pupils may become familiar, by their 
presence, with those marks which are so frequently 
the quality of objects, and of which children often have 
vague and indefinite ideas. 

The Deaf and Dumb learn readily by contrast or 
opposition, and it sometimes happens, that in explain- 
ing a word, its negation imparts its positive meaning. 
Hence in several of the exercises, words are occasion- 
ally so set in opposition, and used in the construction 
of sentences expressing opposite ideas, or positive and 
negative declarations. The 66th, however, is a col- 
lection of words in opposition or contrast, arranged 

* Since this report was completed, the late superintendent (Mr. A. 
O. Stansbury) has invented a system of signs for numbers, which is pre- 
ferable to any heretofore in use for the Deaf and Dumb. It has been 
adopted, and is in daily use in the New-York Institution. This system 
is explained in a letter to the president, and is published in the appendix 
fo this work. 



[ 36 J 

under the following heads. 1. Nouns. 2. Adjectives. 
3. Verbs : and 4. Opposition by prefixes. The words 
only are introduced, the sentences being left for the 
teacher to supply, as in the following examples. 

1. Nouns. 

Life. Life is uncertain. 

Death. Death is certain. 

2. Adjectives. 

Hot. Fire is hot. 

Cold. Ice is cold. 

3. Verbs. 

To live. He lived in Albany. 

To die. He died in New- York. 

To be alive. I am alive. 

To be dead. He is dead. 

4. Prefixes, 

To fold. She folded the letter. 

To unfold. He unfolded the letter. 

To be folded. This letter is folded. 

To be unfolded. That letter is unfolded. 

The derivation of words occupies the 67th Exercise. 
Nouns derived from verbs are the only examples given, 
but after the same manner nouns derived from adjec- 
tives, and adjectives from nouns, &c. may be introduced 
for the purpose of explaining the derivatives by means 
of the radical sign. From the verb to except comes 
the prepositions except and excepting, the noun excep- 
tion, and the adjective exceptionable. The radical sign. 



[ 37 .] 

and the sign for a preposition, a noun, or an adjec- 
tive, will form a sign for each of these words, so that 
there may be as great precision in expressing words 
by mute signs, as there is in using them viva voce. 
From the noun excess comes the adjective excessive, 
and the adverb excessively, and these may each be ex- 
pressed by its appropriate sign. The words of this 
exercise will afford ample scope for the formation of 
sentences from the radical word and its derivatives; and 
if in progressing thus far the pupil has been attentive, 
he or she, or a whole class with their slates before 
them, may be called upon to exercise their own inge- 
nuity in constructing sentences to introduce the radical 
word or its derivative. This is an important exercise 
for the Deaf and Dumb, and if entered into in detail, 
will occupy much time and give them great insight into 
the structure and employment of language. 

Although adjectives are early introduced to the 
knowledge of the Deaf and Dumb, the degrees of com- 
parison have been delayed to the 68th Exercise, in 
which most of the adjectives previously introduced are 
collected and compared. As in other lessons, the words 
are in marginal columns, and the exercises in opposite 
sentences. 

The formation of the plural is the subject of the 
69th Exercise. Words have been used in the plural 
in other exercises, but in this the nouns are collected 
and arranged under different heads, according to the 
manner in which the plural is formed, and exercises are 
carried out opposite each word. The plural is formed, 
1st. By adding s to the singular. 2d. By adding es to 
the singular. 3d. By changing for fe into ves. 4tk By 
changing y and ey into ies. 5th. The singular and plu- 



[ 38 J 

ral are alike. 6th. Nouns in the singular only. 7th. 
Nouns in the plural only; and 8th. The plural irregu- 
lar. This lesson requires attention, and numerous 
additional examples of the words in construction, which 
may be formed by the pupil. The sign for the singu- 
lar number is the thumb of the left hand elevated ; 
and for the plural, the thumb and fingers elevated and 
separated, indicative of many. 

The masculine and feminine genders are formed, 
1st. By different terminations. 2d. By different words ; 
and 3d. By the addition of a word. Under these seve- 
ral heads are arranged words and examples which 
make up the 70th Exercise. The sign for weakness 
indicates the feminine gender, and when that is not 
used, the gender is masculine. The neuter gender will 
be neither the feminine nor its opposite. 

With the 71st Exercise the lessons by short sen- 
tences are terminated. It contains examples of the 
use of this and that, these and those, each and every, 
either, or, neither, nor, one and other, as they are used 
either singly or in opposition. Under each word is 
contained a number of examples of the manner of em- 
ploying them in composition. If the pupil has paid 
attention to his instructor, he will be enabled by the 
time he arrives at this exercise, to understand a con- 
tinued written discourse on a given subject. Hence, 
in the 72d Exercise, the subject of domestic animals 
affords a number of lessons for this purpose. 

The domestic animals delineated are divided into 
quadrupeds and birds. Their employment and use is 
the subject of the exercise, and the male, female and 
young of each is figured at the head of the lesson. 
There are delineations of a horse, marc and colt, a 



[ 39 ] 

buU y cow and calf, a boar, sow and pigs, a ram, ewe 
and lamb, a he-goat, she-goat and kid, a dog, bitch and 
pups, a he-cat, she-cat and kittens, among domestic 
quadrupeds; — and the following among the birds: a 
cock, hen and chickens, a gander, goose and goslings, a 
drake, duck and ducklings, a cock-turkey, hen-turkey 
and young turkies. Each of these groups of animals 
supplies a lesson containing a short account of them; 
and each gives rise to the employment of some new 
word, which is marked, that a knowledge of its import 
and use may be conveyed, while the subject matter 
which led to it will afford a more correct conception 
of its meaning. 

The Exercises from the 78th to the 84th, contain an 
account of the animal creation divided into their several 
classes, and a number of the animals in each class are 
figured with a dialogue between the teacher and scho- 
lar, on the nature of these different classes. The ani- 
mals figured are quadrupeds, birds, amphibious ani- 
mals, fishes and insects. Each animal delineated will 
supply a subject for a lesson; and the teacher, in giving 
his pupil a knowledge of the material world, will be 
at the same time instructing him in language. An his- 
torical account of these beings w r ould swell our pages 
to an immoderate number; wherefore much of the de- 
tail in these and other lessons is left to the discretion 
of the instructor. The succeeding exercises give a 
general outline of the vegetable creation, the omissions 
of which are also to be supplied. 

The work before the committee, concludes with the 
85th Exercise ; but there are three important points in 
the instruction of the Deaf and Dumb, as yet omitted. 



[ 10 ] 

These are Interrogation, Abbreviation and EilifW • 
the subjects of the 73d, 74th and 75th Exercises. 

Interrogation, or the manner of asking questions, is 
all-important to the Deaf Mute ; for as soon as he is 
known to have made any progress in acquiring lan- 
guage, he is assailed by questions couched in such 
terms that he cannot understand them. This is the 
method in Avhich his friends, and even strangers, ap- 
proach him to examine into the extent of his acquire- 
ments, and to hold converse with him. It is therefore 
necessary to make him acquainted with the method of 
asking questions ; and for this purpose the 73d Exer- 
cise is arranged, containing examples under the words 
most commonly employed in commencing a question. 
These are who, whose, whom, tvhich, what, when, where, 
whence, whither, how, can, will, shall, may, must, is, 
are, why, wherefore, do, did, have, had. Under each 
of these is a series of questions and answers in illus- 
tration, and they are followed by a column of promis- 
cuous questions which the pupils are to answer. They 
should also be required to answer other questions, 
when sufficiently acquainted with the method. The 
exercises succeeding the 76th, are dialogues further to 
illustrate the manner of asking questions and supply- 
ing the answers. 

In teaching the Deaf and Dumb to understand writ- 
ten language, the nature of abbreviation and the con- 
traction of words should not be omitted. The 74th 
Exercise accordingly explains the meaning of the con- 
tracted words Mr. Mrs. Messrs. Dr. Cr. Rev. &c. by 
examples. Besides these, the contraction of words 
used in poetry, as tho > e'en, o'er, &c. as well as where 



[ 41 ] 

two or more words are contracted into one, as Vd for 
I had, 'tis for it is. These poetical abbreviations are 
left for the teacher to supply the examples. 

The pronouns were invented to prevent repetition 
and facilitate discourse. So are we in the habit in or- 
dinary conversation, as well as in writing, of shortening 
our discourse by ellipsis; and the proper understand- 
ing of this subject renders such language or writing 
correct. In the 75th Exercise are examples of ellipsis 
of the article, the noun, the pronoun, the adjective, the 
verb, the adverb, the conjunction and the preposition; 
also the ellipsis of part of a sentence, the ellipsis in 
asking questions, and in answering them. Under each 
of these heads are numerous examples, which may be 
increased till the pupil becomes perfectly familiar with 
them. 

In addition to the figures delineated, the plan recom- 
mended to the directors of the institution, in a report 
made in November, 1819, should not fail to be adopted, 
of suspending from the walls, paintings, prints and 
other sketches of natural and artificial objects, events 
and occurrences, as would give life and energy to the 
inquisitive pupil, and afford additional opportunities of 
instructing while at the same time a lesson from the 
teacher on such a subject, would appear like an amuse- 
ment rather than a. task. 

Something must necessarily be said on the division 
of the matter of the work under the consideration of 
the committee, for the use of the pupils, as well as on 
the division of time that they are to apply themselves 
to its different parts. 



42 



DIVISION OF THE MATTER. 

If the directors should determine to publish the work 
submitted to the committee of instruction, it would not 
be proper to put it into the hands of the pupil, 'till he 
or she became somewhat advanced in study ; but never- 
theless, the youngest pupil must have the benefit of it. 
For this purpose let the matter of the first five exer- 
cises of words with figures, together with the inter- 
vening exercises, be divided into a series of lessons to 
to be printed on cards, as follows : 

FIRST SERIES OF LESSONS. 

The first series will consist of the letters of the 
alphabet, making ten lessons for the noviciate, who will 
be enabled to mark his own progress by his fingers, 
and at the same time learn to count ten. 

SECOND SERIES OF LESSONS. 

The second series will contain the names and repre- 
sentations of the objects delineated in the five first 
exercises of figures. These figures may be divided 
into twenty-seven lessons, each containing eight or ten 
words, and marked with a letter of the alphabet. 

THIRD SERIES OF LESSONS. 

The third series will be a repetition of the figures 
of the preceding, but the names of the objects are to 
be omitted, and the lessons marked by double letters, 



[ 43 ] 

as Aa, Bb, &c. This method will serve to divide pupils 
into classes, or to denote their progress, or to give in- 
formation of the lessons they are learning. The les- 
son in the second series would be marked by the pupil 
making the sign for the letter designating that lesson; 
and in the third series, the double letter would denote 
the advance of the scholar. 

FOURTH SERIES OF LESSONS. 

The exercises of words and sentences in the begin- 
ning of the book, may be divided into a fourth series 
of lessons, marked with a letter and a figure, from one 
to 27, being as many as the letters of the alphabet in 
the 2d and 3d series. These lessons are longer than 
those in the preceding series, and are progressively in- 
creased as the understanding improves, and memory 
strengthens. 

For the next step, it might be proper to bind the 
first 43 exercises into one small volume, for the second 
class of pupils, who should revise the whole, and have 
additions, alterations, and more extended examples of 
the use of the words in composition. The whole work, 
when printed and bound, should only be put into the 
hands of the oldest and most advanced scholars. Thus 
by a judicious division of the materials, the parts will 
serve to mark the progress of the pupils, and to distin- 
guish them into classes. 

DIVISION OF TIME. 

It is impossible to determine the exact time it will 
take to progress gradually through the work, after the 



[ 44 ] 

manner heretofore detailed, as that will depend upon 
the age and capacity of the pupil. Some will, of course, 
be longer, and some a shorter time; but two or three 
years, provided the pupil is not too young, may be cal- 
culated as a reasonable period to induct the Deaf and 
Dumb into a general knowledge of written language, 
which will be extended by other books and other sub- 
jects. In the meanwhile the pupil has intervals of re- 
laxation, in which he learns to write ; and if his progress 
is equal to the ordinary advance of Deaf Mutes, he 
may commence the fust elements of arithmetic. This 
may answer for a third or fourth year's course of study, 
embracing addition, subtraction, multiplication and divi- 
sion, together with proportion, practice, and some frac- 
tions. These will include a knowledge of weights and 
measures, denominations of money, &c. to which may 
be added, a plain system of book keeping. 

A concise system of geography may be selected for 
their use, and their studies may close with religious 
and moral instruction. Moral duty and obligation, ac- 
cording to Payley, would be a work well calculated to 
aid in making them useful members of society. If more 
than three years can be well spared to instruct these 
unfortunate beings, they will be the better enabled to 
provide for themselves in their future intercourse with 
mankind. 

It is not intended to give a highly finished education 
to the Deaf and Dumb; but by enabling them to com- 
municate with their fellow beings in writing, which 
may be done in a period of from three to five years, we 
raise them from a dormant and forlorn condition, to 
that of rational beings. With this advantage, they 
will be enabled to learn any art or trade, and thus 



[ 45 ] 

become active and useful members of society. It is true, 
that some of them are; taught the useful arts without 
the knowledge of writing, and hence some persons have 
persuaded themselves that the Deaf and Dumb were 
not in need of instruction. If this were correct, it would 
be applicable to other persons, and our children might 
go uneducated; because, like the Deaf and Dumb, they 
could do without it. But the idea is too preposterous 
to require refutation. 

We have not sufficient experience in the United 
States, to go into a more minute detail of the time and 
manner of teaching Deaf Mutes, or of the books best 
calculated for their use. The preceding remarks are 
the result of observations made since the school under 
our direction has been in operation. Perhaps in a {ew 
years, the combined observations of the schools at Hart- 
ford, New- York and Philadelphia, may give rise to a 
plan of studies for the Deaf and Dumb in the English 
language, better adapted than any heretofore in use. 
If the preceding should aid in leading to that desirable 
result, the credit will redound to this institution for its 
exertions in behalf of those interesting beings, and 
heretofore neglected portion of our fellow creatures. 
Respectfully submitted by 

SAMUEL AKERLY. 

New- York, 23d Sept. 1820. 

To Dr. Samuel L. Mitchill, ) 

Rev. James Milkor, f Committee of 
Charles G. Haines, I Instruction. 

Rev. Alex. M'Leod, ; 



ELEMENTARY 



1st EXERCISE. 

The first Exercise io instructing the Deaf and Dumb, is to 
teach them the Alphabet, which is done by substituting 
the Manual Signs for the Letters ; which are as follows : 



ALPHABET FOR THE DEAF AND DUMB. 
A a Bb CO 






E e 




HJi 




Kk 





Ff 





LA 




L 48 J 



(15/ EXERCISE CONTINUED.) 



Mm 




Nn 



o 





*> 





Q 1 




T t 






R r 




U « 




Yy ^Y x. 





[ 49 ] 

2d EXERCISE. 

After acquiring the free use of the fingers, so as readily to 
place them in the proper positions to represent the letters 
with the Alphabet before them, the pupils should com- 
mit the same to memory, and be exercised in the manual 
signs, with and without the alphabet 

The Alphabet without the Manual Signs. 

Aa Hh Oo V v 

Bb I i Pp Ww 

Cc Jj Qq Xx 

Dd Kk R r Yy 

Ee LI S s Z z 

Ff Mm Tt & 

Gg N n Uu 

Note. The next Exercise will be to make them ac- 
quainted with the different alphabets, for the letters of 
which they are to make the same signs. 

G 



[ w ] 

3d EXERCISE. 
CAPITAL LETTERS. 



ROMAN CAPITALS. 



ABCDEFGH 
I J KLMNOP 
QRS TUYWX 

Y Z & 



ITALIC CAPITALS. 



ABCDEFGH 

I J K L MJSTO P 

QR S T U V W X 

Y Z & 

WRITING CAPITALS. 



a 



[ 51 ] 

SMALL LETTERS. 

ROMAN LETTERS. 



bcdefghijk 
1 mnopqr stuv 
w x y z & 



ITALIC LETTERS. 



a b c d e f g h i j k 

I m n o p q r s t u v 

w x y z &f 



WRITING LETTERS. 

<z v- c a 6 pane 



w- as u i Or 



Note. After the pupils have acquired a thorough know- 
ledge of the letters, by the various alphabets, they are to be 
taught to make the written letters on a slate, or a black 
board, with the pencil or crayon. From letters they pro- 
ceed to words, the signification of which is conveyed to 
them by figures ; and they are exercised in a knowledge of 
the same, by spelling and by natural signs, or significant 
gestures. 



[ W J 

4th EXERCISE. 

Monosyllables of three Letters, represented by sensible 

Objects. 



AW1 ^*^555^Jjjjjjuu||gyuM||rf 




Ape 



Axe 





Adz 



Ant 





Ass' 




Bee 



Bow 



[ 53 ] 
(4tk EXERCISE.) 




Box 



Bat 




Bug 




Cat 






Bud 



Cow 



Cap 




[ 54 ] 

(4th EXERCISE.) 



Dog 





Egg 



Eel 





Fan 



Fly 




. Fox 



Gun 





Hen 



y 



Hoe 



Hat 



t 55 ] 

(4th EXERCISE.) 





Jar 



Jug 





Key 



Mop 




Owl 





Ox 




Pan 




Pen 



Pin 



[ 56 ] 
(4th EXERCISE.) 





Pot 



Rat m 




rm& 



Sun 





Saw 



Top 



Urn 





Wig 




Web 



L 57 ] 

5th EXERCISE. 

A representation of Objects without their Names, to he 
expressed by signs, spelled by the Pupils, or written 
from memory. 




[ 58 ] 
(5th EXERCISE.) 









^qnuttuwiDflnuionioipw 











[ 59 ] 
{5th EXERCISE.) 




[ 61 } 

6th EXERCISE. 

Monosyllabic Words of three Letters to exercise the 
Pupils by Natural Signs, without the objects before 
them. 



Awl 


Bug 


Gun 


Pen 


Ape 


Cow 


Hen 


Pin 


Axe 


Cat 


Hoe 


Pot 


Adz 


Cap 


Hat 


Rat 


Ant 


Cup 


Jar 


Saw 


Ass 


Dog 


Jug 


Sun 


Bee 


Egg 


Key 


Top 


Bow 


Eel 


Mop 


Urn 


Box 


Fan 


Ox 


Wig 


Bat 


Fly 


Owl 


Web 


Bud 


Fox 


Pan 





7th EXERCISE. 

The preceding Monosyllabic Words with the articles 
prefixed. 





1. A 


or An. 




An awl 


a bug 


a gun 


a pen 


an ape 


a cow 


a hen 


a pin 


an axe 


a cat 


a boe 


a pot 


an adz 


a cap 


a hat 


a rat 


an ant 


a cup 


ajar 


a saw 


an ass 


a dog 


a j"g 


a sun 


a bee 


an egg 


a key 


a top 


a bow 


an eel 


an ox 


an urn 


a box 


a fan 


a mop 


a wig 


a bat 


a fly 


an owl 


a web 


a burf 


a fox 


a nan 





62 





(7th EXERCISE.) 






2. The. 






The awl 


the bug 


the gun 


the pen 


the ape 


the cow 


the hen 


the pin 


the axe 


the eat 


the hoe 


the pot 


the adz 


the cap 


the hat 


the rat 


the ant 


the cup 


the jar 


the saw 


the ass 


the dog 


the jug 


the sun 


the bee 


the egg 


the key 


the top 


the bow 


the eel 


the mop 


the urn 


the box 


the fan 


the ox 


the wig 


the bat 


the fly 


the owl 


the web 


the bud 


the fox 


the pan 





8th EXERCISE. 

Monosyllabic Adjectives qualifying Substantives. 



Big 


A big ox 


The big ox 


Little 


a little ant 


the small ant 


Large 


a large gun 


the large gun 


Small 


a small fly 


the small fly 


Bad 


a bad boy 


the bad boy 


Good 


a good boy 


the good boy 


Old 


an old hat 


the old hat 


New 


a new hat 


the new hat 


Old 


an old man 


the old man 


Young 


a young man 


the young man 


Fat 


a fat hen 


the fat hen 


Lean 


a lean cow 


the lean cow 


Tall 


a tall man 


the tall man 


Short 


a short man 


the short man 


Long 


a long pen 


the long pen 


Short 


a short pen 


the short pen 



63 





(8th EXERCISE 


•) 


Rich 


A rich man 


The rich man 


Poor 


a poor man 


the poor man 


Wet 


a wet day 


the wet day 


Dry 


a dry day 


the dry day 


Hot 


a hot day 


the hot day 


Cold 


a cold day 


the cold day 


High 


a high tree 


the high tree 


Low 


a low tree 


the low tree 


Thick 


a thick wall 


the thick wall 


Thin 


a thin saw 


the thin saw 


Clear 


a clear sky 


the clear sky 


Thick 


a thick cloud 


the thick cloud 


Dull 


a dull axe 


the dull axe 


Sharp 


a sharp adz 


the sharp adz 


Fine 


a fine cap 


the fine cap 


Ripe 


a ripe apple 


the ripe apple 


Clean 


a clean shirt 


the clean shirt 


Round 


a round ball 


the round ball 


Mad 


a mad dog 


the mad dog 


siy 


a sly fox 


the sly fox 


Full 


a full moon 


the full moon 


Kind 


a kind friend 


the kind friend 


Wild 


a wild cat 


the wild cat 


Nice 


a nice girl 


the nice girl 


Hard 


a hard nut 


the hard nut 


Soft 


a soft egg 


the soft egg 


True 


a true gun 


the true gun 


Bright 


a bright sun 


the bright sun 



I 



64 



J 



9th EXERCISE. 

The Quality of the Substantive affirmed by the Verb 

to be. 



The ox is big 
the ant is little 
the gun is large 
the fly is small 
he is a bad boy 
this is a good dog 
the hat is old 
the hat was new 
lie is an old man 
he was a young man 
it was a fat hen 
it is a lean cow 
he is a tall man 
it was a short man 
this is a long pin 
that is a short pin 
the man is rich 
he is a rich man 
the man is poor 
he is a poor man 
it was a wet day 
it is a dry day 
it was a hot day 
it is a cold day 
the tree is high 
it is a high tree 
the tree is low 
it is a low tree 
the wall is thick 
the saw is thin 



it is a thin saw 
the sky is clear 
it is a thick cloud 
the axe is dull 
this is a dull axe 
the adz is sharp 
this is a sharp adz 
the cap is fine 
it is a fine cap 
the apple is ripe 
this is a ripe apple 
my shirt is clean 
this is a clean shirt 
the ball is round 
this is a round ball 
the dog is mad 
there is a mad dog 
the fox is sly 
that is a sly fox 
the moon is full 
it is full moon 
he is a kind friend 
that is a wild cat 
this is a nice girl 
this is a hard nut 
the nut is hard 
this is a soft egg 
this egg is soft 
we see the bright sun 
the sun is bright 



[ 65 ] 

10th EXERCISE. 

Monosyllables of four Letters, represented by sensible 

Objects. 



Book 





Bear 



Boat 





Bell 



Boot 





Bird 




Cage 



[ »• ] 

(lO//t EXERCISE.) 



Cart 



Cane 





Coop 



Crab 



Comb 





Drum 



Dart 





f Desk 




Duck 



Door 



[ 67 ] 
(10th EXERCISE.) 





Dock 



Doll 




Flea 



'i:;i! ; .i;!';i:;;li , 



Flag 





Fork 



Fish 





Frog 




File 



[ M ] 

(10/A EXERCISE.) 



Goat 




Horn 





Gate 




Hook 



Hoop 




Lion 





Kite 




Leaf 




Lock 



Mole 



Moth 



Nest 



Pail 



[ G9 J 

(lOtk EXERCISE.) 






Mill 




Moon 




Nail 



Pear 




Pipe 



[ * ] 

(\0tll EXERCISE.) 



Pink 



Pump 



Rake 




Rule ^wMMm 

3T.I .» ... 2. i. . 




Plum 





Root 



Rose 




Sled 



£ 7 i ] 

(lOlh EXERCISE.) 



Shoe 



Tree ' 





Toad 




Tent 



- "i"r^;:^hvw.w ! -^ A 



Worm 





Well 



Whip 





Yoke 



L 73 ] 

Hth EXERCISE. 

A representation of Objects without their Names, to be 
expressed by Signs, spelled by the Pupils, or written 
from memory, as the 5th Exercise. 




[ M ] 

(11/A EXERCISE.) 






jiiii^iiiiiiiiilSdiiiiiii^iilllliill- 









I 75 J 

(11 th EXERCISE.) 




[ ™ ] 

(\Mh EXERCISE.) 






imramn«miiniiniiiiiiiiii!iiiiii«im:iii.* 



~ / 7mm r - 




[ 77 ] 

12th EXERCISE. 
Monosyllabic Words of four Letters, to exercise the 
Pupils by Natural Signs, without the objects before 



them. 








Book 


Duck 


Kite 


Pump 


bear 


door 


lion 


ring 


boat 


dock 


leaf 


rake 


bell 


doU 


lock 


root 


boot 


flea 


mole 


rule 


bird 


flag 


mill 


rose 


cage 


fork 


moth 


sled 


cart 


fish 


moon 


shoe 


coop 


frog 


nest 


toad 


eane 


file 


nail 


tree 


crab 


goat 


pail 


tent 


comb 


gate 


pear 


worm 


drum 


horn 


pipe 


well 


dart 


hook 


pink 


whip 


desk 


hoop 


plum 


yoke 



13th EXERCISE. 
Words of the preceding Exercise used in Composition. 



Book I read the book Cane 

bear I see the bear crab 

boat I was in (lie boat comb 

bell ring the bell drum 

boot give me the boot dart 

bird the bird is gone desk 

cage the bird is in the cage duck 

cart the cart is full of dirt door 

toop the coop is open dock 



The cane is mine t 

eat the crab 

bring me the comb 

he beats the drum 

send the dart 

the desk is too high 

he killed the duck 

open the door 

the sloop is by the dock 



78 





(13/A EXERCISE.) 


Doll 


This is my doll 


Nail 


Drive a nail in the wall 


flea 


the Jlea hops 


pail 


the pailh full of water 


flag 


hoist the fag 


pear 


this is a ripe pear 


fork 


this is a broken fork 


pipe 


he smokes a pipe 


fish 


the fsh swims 


pink 


the pink smells sweet 


frog 


the^ro^ 1 jumps 


plum 


the plum tastes sour 


file 


the Jile is hard 


pump 


go to the pump 


goat 


the goat butts 


ring 


give me the ring 


gate 


the gate is shut 


rake 


he took up the rake 


horn 


it is made of a cow's 


root 


the root is in the 




horn 




ground 


hook 


the hook is sharp 


rule 


give me the rule 


hoop 


the hoop is round 


rose 


it is a red rose 


kite 


the boy is flying his 


sled 


he rides on a sled 




kite 


shoe 


the shoe pinches my 


lion 


the lion is strong 




foot 


leaf 


it is the leaf of a tree 


toad 


I hate a toad 


lock 


put a lock upon the 


tree 


that is a tall tree 




door 


tent 


the soldier sleeps in a 


mole 


the mole eats roots 




tent 


mill 


grain is ground in a 


worm 


I saw a worm on the 




mill 




ground 


moth 


the moth eats cloth 


well 


the well is very deep 


moon 


the moon is bright 


whip 


a whip for bad boys 


nest 


the nest is on a tree 


yoke 


a yoke for the ox 



14th EXERCISE. 
Man and his Correlatives, with Exercises on the Words. 



Man 


A good man 


grand-] 


mother my grand- 


men 


two bad men 




mother 


woman 


a fat woman 


uncle 


he is my uncle 


father 


my father is dead 


aunt 


she is my aunt 


mother 


my mother is sick 


cousin 


he is my cousin 


husband 


husband and wife 


child 


the child is 


grand-father his grandfather 




asleep 



i 



79 



J 





Children 

baby 

boy 

girl 

girls 

infant 

youth 

manhood 

childhood 

old age 

young man 

old man 

young woman 

old woman 

brother 

sister 

son 

daughter 

M 

grand-son 

grand-daughter 

grand-child 



4/A EXERCISE.) 

The children are playing 

the baby is in the cradle 

the boy is lost 

I am a little girl 

the girls are writing 

the infant is dead 

youth is the season of joy 

he is in a state of manhood 

she is in her childhood 

pay respect to old age 

this young man and 

that old man 

a young woman 

an old woman 

my brother is gone 

my dear sister is dead 

this is my son 

this is my sister's daughter 

she is my cousin 

he has a grand-son 

he has a grand-daughter 

his grand-child is very little 



15th EXERCISE. 



Body 

limbs 

head 

face 

hair 

forehead 

crown 

temples 

curl 

eve 



Parts of 

Eyes 

pupil 

eye-brow 

eye-lash 

eye-lid 

eye-ball 

nose 

nostrils 

cheek 

cheeks 



the Human Body. 



Dimple 


Gums 


whiskers 


tongue 


wrinkle 


palate 


lip 


front-tooth 


lips 


front-teeth 


upper-lip 


double-teeth 


under-lip 


upper-tooth 


mouth 


under-tooth 


tooth 


loose-tooth 


teeth 


rotten-tooth 



t 



80 



J 



Chin 

beard 

throat 

car 

cars 

jaw 

upper-jaw 

under-jaw 

neck 

arm 

arms 

right- arm 

left-arm 

arm-pit 

fore-arm 

shoulder 

elbow 

elbows 

wrist 

wrists 



(15/A EXERCISE.) 

Back 



Fist 

hand 

right-hand 

left-hand 

palm of (he hand 

back of the hand 

finger 

joint 

knuckle 

nail 

thumb 

finger-nail 

fore-finger 

middle-finger 

ring-finger 

little-finger 

breast 

stomach 

belly 



baek-bone 

side 

right-side 

left-side 

ribs 

waist 

lap 

legs 

right-leg 

left-leg 

hips 

thighs 

knee 

knee-pan 

shin 

calf of the leg 

ancles 

foot 



sole of the foot 

instep 

heel 

toes 

great-toe 

bone 

flesh 

skin 

scull 

brain 

heart 

blood 

lungs 

tears 

spittle 

perspiration 

shape 

looks 

gait 



Note. The parts of the body can be pointed out by the teacher, 
and require no representation. 



16th EXERCISE. 
PRONOUNS. 

1st PERSONAL PRONOUNS. 



thou 



he 



I am a good boy. 
thou art a good boy. 
he is a good boy. 
she is a good girl. 



I am not a good boy. 
I am a bad boy. 
thou art not a good boy. 
thou art a bad boy. 
he is not a good boy. 
he is a bad boy. 
she is not a good girl. 
she is a bad girl. 



It 

we 

ye 

you 
thev 



[ 81 ] 

(16/A EXERCISE.) 
it is a new house. it is not a new bouse. 



we are good children. 
ye are clean children. 
you arc kind girls. 
they are rich men. 



it is an old house. 
we are not good children. 
we are bad children. 
ye are not clean children. 
ye are dirty children. 
you are not kind girls. 
you are unkind girls. 
they are not ricli men. 
they are poor men. 



2d. PERSONAL TRONOUNS DECLINED. 



( I 

niine 

me 

thou 

thine 

thee 

his 

him 

k she 

| hers 

'her 

.it 

its 
it 



Singular. 

I have a bird, 
this bird is mine. 
papa gave it to me. 
thou hast a book, 
the book is thine. 
papa gave it to thee. 

he goes to school. 
his school is out. 
I saw him in school. 
she has a fan. 
the fan is hers. 
give her the fan. 

it has no cover, 
it has lost its cover, 
make a cover for if. 




Plural. 

We see with our eyes. 

these pens are ours. 

he gave them to us. 
ye or you you saw the pens, 
yours they are not yours. 

you shall not have 
them. 

they drink tea. 

the nuts are theirs. 

teach them to be good. 

they eat fish. 

the birds are theirs. 

learn them the alpha- 
bet. 

they cannot see. 

the loss is theirs. 

I am sorry for them. 



you 

they 

' theirs 

them 

they 

' theirs 

' them 

: they 

. theirs 

them 



5d. rossEssivE tronouxs. 
Our 



My You live in my house, 

thy he has thy book and slate, 

his his slate is broken, 

her she lost her comb. 



your 
their 



Our house is new. 
your house is old. 
their dog is lost. 



82 





(16/A EXERCISE.) 




4th. DISTRIBUTIVE. 


Each 


Each of them gave me an apple. 


every 


every one of them is poor. 


either 


I have not seen either of them. 




5tll. DEMONSTRATIVE. 


this 


this is a fine day. 


that 


that is a sour apple. 


these 


these apples are sour. 


those 


those pears are sweet. 




6th. Indefinite. 


some 


some of you must go for water. 


one 


one of you may go. 


any 


any of you may go. 


all 


you must not all go. 


other 


he is in the other room. 


such 


I never saw him in such a passion 



17th EXERCISE. 

Verbs expressive of some of the first necessary Actions 
of Life, 

To live, I live, thou livest, he lives. 

The man lives. 
to breathe, "We breathe, you breathe, they breathe. 

All of us breathe. 
to suck, I sucked, thou suckedst, he sucked. 

We all sucked. 
to sleep, "We sleep, you sleep, they sleep. 

The infant sleeps. 
to wake, I wake, thou wakest, he wakes. 

The man wakes me. 
to eat, I eat, thou eatest, he eats. 

We eat dinner, 
to drink, I drink, thou drinkest, he drinks. 

They drink water, 
to see, I see, thou seest, he sees. 

We see the sun shine. 



[ 



83 



I 



To hear, 
to smell, 
to taste, 
to ehew, 
to swallow, 
to lie, 
to sit, 
to go, 

to come, 

to love, 

to hate, 

to walk, 

to run, 

to hop, 

to get, 

to jump, 

to wash, 

to speak, 



(17th KXERCISE.) 
1 hear, thou hearest, he hears. 

The Deaf and Dumb do not hear. 
I smell, thou smellest, he smells. 

The hay smells sweet. 
I taste, thou tasteth, he tastes. 

He tasled the peach. 
I chew, thou chewest, he chews. 

He chews his meat. 
I swallow, thou swallowest, he swallows. 

He sivallowed a plum. 
I lie, thou liest, he lies. 

He lies on the bed. 
I sit, thou sittest, he sits. 

She sits in the chair. 



he goes. 



I go, thou goest, 

He goes to bed at dusk. 
I come, thou comest, he comes. 

Let them come to us. 
I love, thou lovest, he loves. 

I lone the baby. 
I hate, thou hatest, he hates. 

He hales to speak the truth. 
I walk, thou walkest, he walks. 

We walk to school. 
We run, you run, they run. 

We run and play. 
We hop, you hop, they hop. 

He is hopping. 
I get, thou gettcst, he gets. 

He gets a whipping. 
I jump, thou jumpest, he jumps. 

He is jumping. 
We wash, you wash, they wash. 

They are washing. 
We speak, you speak, they speak. 

I apeak the truth. 



[ 



84 



3 



(17//i EXERCISE.) 
To give, We give, you give, they give. 

Give me your hand, 
to take, I take, thou takest, he takes. 

Take her fan. 
to dress, We dress, you dress, they dress. 

Dress the hahy. 
to undress, We undress, you undress, they undress. 

We undress and go to bed. 
to kiss, I kiss, thou kissest, he kisses. 

I kissed the baby's cheek, 
to send, We send, you send, they send. 

We send you to school to learn, 
to fall, I fall, thou fallest, he falls. 

I fell down and hurt myself, 
to rise, We rise, you rise, they rise. 

I rise early in the morning, 
to do, I do, thou docst, he docs. 

I do as I am bid. 
to act, I act, thou acteth, he acts. 

He acls like a fool. 



18th EXERCISE. 

Exercises by Familiar Sentences on the Parts of the 

Human Body. 

Body A cow has a large body. 

limbs He has long limbs. A tree has limbs. 

« A poplar tree has long limbs. 

head He has a big head. He has a thick head. 

face She has a broad face. 

hair Her hair is long. She has long hair. 

forehead He has a high/orchcad. His /orehead is high, 

crown The crown of his head is bald, 

temples Her temples are covered with curls, 

curl That curl hangs behind her ear. 

eye He has but one eye. 



[ 



85 



J 



(\8th EXERCISE.) 

Eyes Her eyes are bright. She has bright eyes. 

pupil The pupil of his eye is black, 

eve-brows He has large eye-brows. 

eve-lid Ilis eye-lid was swelled, 

eye-lashes You have no eye-lashes. 

eye-balls The boy stuck a fork in his eye-ball. 

" It put out his eye. It made him blind, 

nose I have a large nose. He has a Roman nose. 

nostrils We have two noslrils. 

cheek She has a red cheek. His cheeks are both red. 

dimple She has a dimple on her chin, 

whiskers He has black whiskers. 

wrinkle He has a wrinkle on his forehead, 

lip, lips We have only two lips. 

upper-lip He has a thick upper-lip. 

under-lip His under-lip is swelled, 

mouth He has a wide mouth. 

tooth The Doctor drew his tooth. 

teeth Her teeth are very white, 

gums The gums are red. 

tongue The tongue is used in speaking, 

palate The palate is in the back part of the mouth, 

front-teeth He is shedding his front-teeth. 

double-teeth My double-teeth are sound. His double-teeth 

are rotten, 

upper-tooth This upper-tooth is loose, 

under-tooth This undcr-toolh is loose, 

loose-tooth I have one loose-tooth. He has two loose-teeth. 

rotten-tooth I have one rotten-tooth. He has three rot- 
ten-teeth. 

chin He has a sharp chin. 

beard He has a little beard on his chin. His beard 

begins to grow, 

throat My throat is sore. I have a sore throat. 

car, ears I am deaf in one ear. We are deaf in both ears. 

jaws The teeth are fixed in the jaws. 

upper-jaw He drew a tooth from the upper-jaw. 



I 



80 



J 



Undcr-jaw 

neck 

arm 

arms 

right-arm 

left-arm 

arm-pit 

fore-arm 

shoulder 

elbow 

wrist 

fist 

hand, hands 

right-hand 
left-hand 
palm of the hand 
back of the hand 
a 

finger 

joint 

knuckles 

nails 

thumb 

fore-finger 

middle-finger 

ring-finger 

little-finger 

breast 

stomach 

side 

right-side 

left-side 

ribs 

waist 

lap 



(18th EXERCISE.) 
lie fell down and broke his undcr-jaw. 
She has a long neck. 
He has but one arm. 
The Doctor cutoff one of his arms. 
This is my right -arm. 
This is my left-arm. 
He has a swelling in the arm-pii. 
Ilh fore-arm was broken. 
The bird sat upon his shoulder. 
The poos- boy had a patch upon his elboiv. 
He hurt his wrist. 
He struck me with his fist. 
You have a dirty hand. You have dirty 

hands. 
My right-hand is sore. 
My left-hand is not sore. 
He slapped me with the palm of the hand. 
He struck me a back-handed blow. 
He struck me with the hack of the hand. 
He is pointing with the finger. 
The finger is out of joint. 
The skin is off the knuckles. 
The nails of her fingers are long. 
The thumb is short. I have a thumb on 

each hand. 
I have -a fore-finger. 
I have a middle-finger. 
This is the ring-finger. 
This is my little-finger. 
I have a pain in my breast. 
My stomach is full. I have eaten enough. 
Sit down on this side of me. 
Sit down on my right-side. 
He sat on my left-side. 
I have twelve ribs on each side. 
The girl had a ribbon around her waist. 
The baby sleeps in her lap. 



[ 



87 



J 



Leg 

legs 

right-leg 

left-leg 

hip 

thighs 

knees 

knee-pan 

skin 

shin 

calf of the leg 

ancles 

foot 

soles 

instep 

heel 

toes 

great-toe 

bone 

flesh 

scull 

brain 

heart 

blood 

lungs 

tears 

spittle 

perspiration 
sweat 

H 

shape 
looks 

gait 



(18/A EXERCISE.) 

His leg was shot off. 

His legs are crossed. He sits cross-legged. 

His right-leg is lame. 

He is lame in his lefl-leg. 

He fell down and hurt his hip. 

His thighs were broken by the fall. 

The negro walks on his knees. 

This is the knee-pan. 

He scraped the skin off his shin. 

He has a sore on the shin. 

I have a sear on the calf of the leg. 

Your ancles are swelled. 

She turned hevfoot on one side and sprained 

her ancle. 
We walk on the soles of the feet. 
You have a high instep. 
Your shoe is run down at the heel. 
Turn your toes out when you walk. 
He cut his great-toe with the axe. 
The hone of the arm is broken. 
The skin covers thejlesh. 
The scull is the bone of the head. 
The brain is in the scull. 
My heart beats quick. 
The blood is red. 
We breathe through the lungs. 
The fears rolled down her cheeks. 
Do not spit on the floor : keep it clear of 

spittle. 
Wipe the perspiration off your face. 
I am wet with stveat. 
Sweat is the same as perspiration. 
Her shape is elegant. 
Her looks are pleasant. She is a beautiful 

girl. 
She walks with a bad gait. 



[ 88 1 

19th EXERCISE. 
Words of Five Letters, represented by sensible Objects. 



Acorn 




Brush 





Apple 




Broom 



Crown « 





^ Coach 



Chair 




Clock 





Camel 



Chain 



[ 89 ] 

(19 fh EXERCISE.) 



Churn 



Fence 




Grapes 



^^^##5 



SSS 8 " 8 ' 





Eagle 



Flail 




Grate 



Goose 




^vwSo.vS^SSS^W 




Globe 



Horse 





Knife 



M 



[ 90 1 

(l9//i EXERCISE.) 



Louse 



Quill 



Sword 



Sieve 




Mouse 



Razor 



Sheaf 



Sheep 



Sloop £■ 



Spoow 



[ 91 ] 
(19/A exercise.) 







Spade 




Spear 



Skate 





Snake 



Snail 





Scull 



Screw 



Stove 





Stool 



Spike 



[ *°~ ] 

(\9th EXERCISE.) 



Tongs 





Tabic 




Whale mmnni 



Wedge 





Watch 



Wheel 



[ 93 ] 

20th EXERCISE. 

A representation of Objects without their Names to 
exercise the Pupils in words of five Letters, in the 
same manner as in the 5th and Uth Exercises. 




[ 04 ] 

(20//i EXERCISE.) 




[ 05 ] 
(20/A EXERCISE.) 




90 



21st EXERCISE. 

Words of Jive Letters, to exercise the Pupils by Natu- 
ral Signs, without the objects before them, as in the 
6th and 12th Exercises. 



Acorn 

Apple 

Brush 

Broom 

Crown 

Coach 

Chair 

Camel 

Clock 

Chain 

Churn 

Eagle 



Fence 

Flail 

Grapes 

Grate 

Goose 

Globe 

Horse 

House 

Knife 

Louse 

Mouse 

Quill 



Razor 

Sword 

Sheaf 

Sieve 

Sheep 

Sloop 

Spoon 

Spade 

Spear 

Skate 

Snake 

Snail 



Scull 

Screw 

Stool 

Stove 

Spike 

Tongs 

Table 

Whale 

Watch 

Wedge 

Wheel 



22d EXERCISE. 

The Words of the preceding Exercise, with the arti- 
cles in the Singular and Plural. 



SINGULAR. 


PLURAL. 


An acorn 


the acorn 


the acorns 


an apple 


the apple 


the apples 


a brush 


the brash 


the brushes 


a broom 


the broom 


the brooms 


a crown 


the crown 


the crowns 


a coach 


the coach 


the coaches 


a chair 


the chair 


the chairs 


a cloek 


the clock 


the clocks 


a camel 


the camel 


the camels 


a chain 


the chain 


the chains 



[ 



97 



] 



(22<Z EXERCISE.) 
SINGULAR. 



An eagle 
a fence 
a flail 
a grape 
a giate 
a goose 
a globe 
a horse 
a house 
a knife 
a louse 
a mouse 
a quill 
a razor 
a sword 
a sheaf 
a sieve 
a sheep 
a sloop 
a spoon 
a spade 
a spear 
a skate 
a snake 
a snail 
a seull 
a screw 
a stool 
a stove 
tongs 
a table 
a whale 
a watch 
a wedge 
a wheel 



the eagle 
the fence 
the flail 
the grape 
the grate 
the goose 
the globe 
the horse 
the house 
the knife 
the louse 
the mouse 
the quill 
the razor 
the sword 
the sheaf 
the sieve 
the sheep 
the sloop 
the spoon 
the spade 
the spear 
the skate 
the snake 
the snail 
the scull 
the screw 
the stool 
the stove 
the tongs 
the table 
the whale 
the watch 
the wedge 
the wheel 



PLURAL. 

the eagles 
the fences 
the flails 
the grapes 
the grates 
the geese 
the globes 
the horses 
the houses 
the knives 
the lice 
the mice 
the quills 
the razors 
the swords 
the sheaves 
the sieves 
the sheep 
the sloops 
the spoons 
the spades 
the spears 
the skates 
the snakes 
the snails 
the sculls 
the screws 
the stools 
the stoves 
the tongs 
the tables 
the whales 
the watches 
the wedges 
the wheels 



[ ™ ] 

23d EXERCISE. 

Monosyllabic Verbs, with Short and Familiar Phrases. 
To play, I play, thou playcst, he plays. 

The boys play. 
to tell, I tell, thou tellest, he tells. 

J tell the truth, 
to peep, I peep, thou peepest, he peeps. 

She peeps through the fan. 
to talk, I talk, thou talkest, he talks. 

You talk too loud, 
to spin, I spin, thou spinncst, he spins. 

The boy spins his top. 
to toss, I toss, thou tossest, he tosses. 

He tosses the ball, 
to read, I read, thou readest, he reads. 

She reads her book, 
to speak, I speak, thou speakest, he speaks; 

He speaks the truth, 
to ride, I ride, thou ridest, he rides. 

I ride the horse, 
to hold, I hold, thou boldest, he holds; 

He holds me fast, 
to cut, I cut, thou cuttest, he cuts. 

I cut my hand, 
to fly, I fly, thou fliest, he flies. 

The birdies swift, 
to dig, I dig, thou diggest, he digs. 

He digs in the ground, 
to dine, I dine, thou dinest, he dines. 

I dine at two o'clock, 
to pray, I pray, thou prayest, he prays. 

I pray night and morning, 
to mind, I mind, thou mindest, he minds. 

He minds his book, 
te learn, I learn, thou learnest, he learns. 

He learns his lesson, 
to fear, I fear, thou fearest, he fears. 

The children fear him. 



[ 99 ] 

(23fi? EXERCISE.) 
To sing, I sing, thou singest, he sings. 

She tings in church, 
to dance, I dance, thou daneest, he dances. 

He dances alone, 
to stay, I stay, thou stayest, he stays. 

She stays in the house, 
to hring, I hring, thou hringest, he brings. 

Bring me the hat. 
to clean, I clean, thou cleanest, he cleans. 

He cleans boots and shoes, 
to shut, I shut, thou shuttest, he shuts. 

I shut him in the closet, 
to open, I open, thou openest, he opens. 

Open the door, 
to say, I say, thou sayest, he says. 

He says you hit him. 
to brush, I brush, thou brushest, he brushes. 

Brush my coat, 
to ring, I ring, thou ringest, he rings. 

Ring the bell, 
to laugh, I laugh, thou laughest, he laughs. 

He laughs at you. 
to smile, I smile, thou smilest, he smiles. 

She smiles at the thought, 
to blow, I blow, thou blowest, he blows. 

Blow out the candle, 
to sail, I sail, thou sailest, he sails. 

The boat sails on the water, 
to drive, I drive, thou drivest, he drives. 

He drives a horse and cart, 
to beat, I beat, thou beatest, he beats. 

He heats the drum, 
to light, I light, thou lightest, he lights. 

Light the candle, 
to burn, I burn, thou burnest, he burns. 

The candle burns. 



[ 100 ] 

(23c? EXERCISE.) 
To shine, I shine, thou shincsl, he shines. 

The sun shines. 
to sting, I sting, thou stingest, he stings. 

The bee stings. 
to bake, I bake, thou bakest, he bakes. 

He bakes bread, 
to soar, I soar, thou soarest, he soars. 

The eagle soars to the clouds, 
to buy, I buy, thou buyest, he buys. 

Buy me a hat. 
to sell, I sell, thou sellest, he sells. 

He sells apples, 
to spit, I spit, thou spittest, he spits. 

He spits on the floor, 
to flow, I flow, thou flowest, he flows. 

The tide flows high, 
to swim, I swim, thou swimmest, he swims. 

He swims in the river, 
to dive, I dive, thou divest, he dives. 

He dives under the water, 
to make, I make, thou makest, he makes. 

He makes shoes. 
to kill, I kill, thou killest, he kills. 

I killed a rat. 
to roast, I roast, thou roasteth, he roasts. 

She roasts meat before the fire. 
to boil, I boil, thou boilest, he boils. 

She boils meat in a pot. 
to fry, I fry, thou fryest, he fries. 

Fry the meat in a pan. 
to broil, I broil, thou broilest, he broils. 

Broil the beef-steak. 
to stew, I stew, thou stewest, he stews. 

Stew the oysters, 
to turn, I turn, thou turnest, he tarns. 

Turn around. Turn over. 



E 



101 



J 



Clothes 

shirt 

sleeve 

sleeve-button 

collar 

wrist-band 

stockings 

garters 

socks 

drawers 

pantaloons 

suspenders 

breeches 

fob 

gaiters 

vest 

coat 

surtout 

great-coat 

buttons 

cuffs 

cravat 

boots 

shoes 

buckles 

shoe-string 

slippers 

wig 

hat 

brim 

hat-crown 

lining 

hat- band 

cap 



24th EXERCISE. 
ARTICLES OF CLOTHING. 

He has new clothes. 
I want a clean shirt. 
Button my sleeve. 
I have no sleeve-button. 
My collar is too tight. 
His wrist-hand is loose. 
I want a pair of cotton stockings. 
I have lost one of my garters. 
I wear woollen socks. 
I bought a pair of linen drawers. 
I paid five dollars for my pantaloons. 
My suspenders have stretched. 
It is unfashionable to wear breeches. 
There is no wnteh-fob to my pantaloons. 
Take off your gaiters. 
Put on your vest. 
Your coat does not set well. 
Pull off your surtout. 
This is not your great-coat. 
The buttons are all cut off. 
Turn up your cuffs. 
Your cravat is dirty. 
Clean my boots. 
My shoes are clean. 
Buckles are out of fashion. 
Your shoe-string is untied. 
I have no slippers. 
His head is bald ; he wears a wig. 
I have a white hat. 
It has a broad brim. 

It has a high crown. My hat-crown is high. 
The lining is red. 
The hat-band is loose. 
She wears a cap. 
o 



c 



102 



J 



(2&th EXERCISE.) 

Night-cap He sleeps in a night-cap. 

gown Your gown sets well. 

short gown I am making a short-gown. 

chemise The chemise is on the grass. 

petticoat The petticoat hangs in the yard. 

corsets Loosen my corsets, they are too tight. 

shawl Throw off your shawl. 

ruffle The ruffle is around her neck. 

cloak It is too warm to wear a cloak. 

bonnet Tie on your bonnet. 

ribbon Her bonnet is tied with a green ribbon. 

finger-ring That is ajinger-ring. 

ear-rings These are ear-rings. 

necklace She had no necklace. 

beads A string of beads is around the baby's 

neck. 

girdle She had a girdle around her waist. 

gloves I have a new pair of gloves. 

feathers There were three feathers in her hat. 

muff This is a large and warm muff. 

tippet Tippets are worn in winter. 

apron Put on your apron. 

frock Put on the child's/rocfe. 

waist The frock has a long waist. 

skirt The skirts are torn. 

pocket There is a hole in my pocket. 

purse I lost my purse out of my pocket. 

pocket-book I did not lose my pocket-book. 

pocket-handkerchief I gave a dollar for this pocket-hand- 
kerchief. 

watch My watch is run down. 

chain The chain cost ten dollars. 

key The key and seal are gold. 

seal The figure of a man's head is on the 
seal 



103 



25th EXERCISE. 

Short Phrases, in which an additional list of Adjec- 
tives is introduced. 

She bought a cheap hat. 
He bought a dear watch. 
She has a smooth skin. 
His beard is rough. 
The child is hungry. 
The man is thirsty. 
His face is ugly. 
The girl is handsome. 
He has a pale face ; he 

is sick. 
He has a ruddy face. 
His coat sets tight. 
Her gown is loose. 
She has a weak arm. 
The horse is strong. 
The girl is deaf. 
The boy is dumb. 
There is a blind man. 
There is a. lame beggar. 
There is a dead rat. 
There is a live camel. 
The nut is bitter. 
The apple is sweet. 
The vinegar is sour. 
The sugar is sweet. 
Her hands are tender. 
The ox has a tough skin. 
I want a fresh fish for 

dinner. 
I want a salt fish for 

dinner. 
The weather is fair. 
It is foul weather. 
It is a rainy day. 



Cheap 


A cheap hat. 


dear 


a dear watch. 


smooth 


a smooth skin. 


rough 


a rough beard. 


hungry 


a hungry child. 


thirsty 


a thirsty man. 


ugly 


an ugly face. 


handsome 


a handsome girl. 


pale 


a pale face 


ruddy 


a ruddy face. 


tight 


a tight coat. 


loose 


a loose gown. 


weak 


a weak arm. 


strong 


a strong horse. 


deaf 


a deaf girl. 


dumb 


a dumb boy. 


blind 


a blind man. 


lame 


a lame beggar. 


dead 


a dead rat. 


live 


a live camel. 


bitter 


a bitter nut. 


sweet 


a sweet apple. 


sour 


sour vinegar. 


sweet 


sweet sugar. 


tender 


a tender hand. 


tough 


a tough skin. 


fresh 


afresh fish. 


salt 


a salt fish. 


fair 


fair weather. 


foul 


foul weather. 


rainy 


a rainy day. 



[ 



104 



J 



Stormy 


A stormy night. 


heavy 


a heavy stone. 


light 


a light feather. 


shady 


shady trees. 


ohedient 


an obedient son. 


diligent 


a diligent scholar. 


happy 


a happy parent. 


unhappy 


an unhappy temper. 



mutual 



severe 
industrious 

harmless 

careless 

careful 



(25th EXERCISE.) 

The night looks stormy. 
The stone is heavy* 
The feather is light. 
The trees arc shady. 
My son is obedient. 
He is a diligent scholar. 
She is a happy parent. 
He has an unhappy 

temper. 
We made a mutual agree- 
ment. 
Last winter was severe. 
Bees are industrious 

insects. 
Doves are harmless. 
The girl is careless. 
The woman is careful. 



a mutual agreement. 

a severe winter, 
the industrious bees. 



harmless doves, 
a careless girl, 
a careful woman 



26th EXERCISE. 

The Verbs of the 23d Exercise used in the Imperfect 
Tense, Present Participle, and the Imperative Mood. 

To play, I was playing, 

Go and play hall, 
to peep, thou wast peeping, 

See him peep. 
to tell, he was telling, 

Come and tell me. 
to talk, I was talking, 

Talk to her. 
to spin, thou wast spinning, 

Let her spin, 
to toss, he was tossing, 

Toss the ball to me. 
to read, she was reading* 

Read your book. 



I am playing, 
I am peeping, 
I am telling, 
I am talking, 
thou art spinning, 
he is tossing, 
she is reading, 



I 



105 



3 



(26th EXERCISE.) 



To speak, 


I was speaking, 
Speak the truth. 


I am speaking, 


to ride, 


thou wast riding, 
Ride the horse. 


thou art riding, 


to hold, 


he was holding, 
Hold him last. 


he is holding, 


to cut, 


I was cutting, 


I am cutting, 




Do not cut your hand. 


to fly, 


he was flying, 
Fly from danger. 


he is flying, 


to dig, 


I was digging, 


I am digging, 




Dig a hole in the ground. 


to dine, 


he was dining, 

Let us dine together 


he is dining, 


to pray, 


he was praying, 
Pray for me. 


he is praying, 


to mind, 


she was minding, 
Mind your book. 


she is minding, 


to learn, 


she was learning. 
Learn your lesson. 


she is learning, 


to sing, 


I was singing, 
Sing no more. 


I am singing, 


to dance, 


she was dancing, 
See her dance. 


she is dancing, 


to stay, 


he staid. 

Stay till night. 


he is staying, 


to bring, 


he brought, 
Bring my hat. 


he is bringing, 


to clean, 


I was cleaning, 
Clean my shoes. 


I am cleaning, 


to shut, 


I shut the door, 
Shut the door. 


I am shutting the door, 


to open, 


I opened it, 

Open the closet. 


I am opening it, 


to say, 


I said my prayers, 
Say your prayers. 


I am saying, 



[ 106 ] 

(26th EXERCISE.) 
To brush, I was brushing, I am brushing, 

Brush my boots, 
to ring, I rang the bell, I am ringing, 

Ring the bell, 
to laugh, I was laughing, I am laughing, 

Laugh at her. 
to smile, I smiled, I am smiling, 

Smile again, 
to blow, I was blowing, I am blowing, 

Blow out the candle, 
to sail, I sailed, I am sailing, 

Go sail in the boat, 
to drive, he drove, he is driving, 

Drive faster, 
to beat, he was beating, he is beating, 

Beat the drum, 
to burn, she was burnt, she is burning^ 

Burn your finger, 
to shine, the sun was shining, the sun is shining, 

Let the sun shine. 
to sting, the bees were stinging, the bees are stinging, 

Let the bees sting. 
to bake, the pye was baking, the pye is baking, 

Bake a pye for me. 
to soar, he was soaring, he is soaring, 

Let he eagles soar, 
to buy, she was buying, she is buying, 

Buy me a pye. 
to sell, he was selling, he is selling, 

Sell me some nuts, 
to spit, he spit in the box, he is spitting, 

Spit in the box. 
to flow, the tide was flowing, the tide is flowing, 

Let the tide^ow. 
to swim, he swam in the river, he is swimming, 
Swim in the river. 



[ 107 J 

(26th EXERCISE.) 

To dive, be was diving, he is diving, 

Dive under water, 
to make, 1 was making a pen, I am making a pen, 

Make me a pen. 
to kill, lie killed the dog, he is killing the dog. 

Kill the dog. 
to roast, the meat was roasting, it is roasting, 

Roast the meat, 
to boil, the pot was boiling, it is boiling, 

Boil the pot. 
to fry, the oysters were fried, they are frying, 

Fry me some oysters, 
to broil, the fish was broiling, the fish is broiling, 

Broil me a fish, 
to stew, she stewed the meat, the meat is stewing, 

Steiv the meat ivell. 
to turn, he turned over, he is turning over, 

Let them turn over. 



[ 108 ] 

27th EXERCISE. 

Words of sir or more Letters, represented by sensible 
Objects. 





Beggar 




Bonnet 



Bellows 




Bottle 



Basket 




Curtains 




Church 



Candle 




Circle 




Cradle 



Coffin 



[ 109 ] 

{21th EXERCISE.) 




Castle 



Cannon 




Dagger 




Drummer 



Drunkard 




Funnel 




Feather 




Harrow 




Hammer 




Hatchet 




Ladder 




Lobster 



#p 



[ 110 ] 

(ll/Zt EXERCISE.) 




Monkey Mortar 




Oyster 




Pincers 



D 



Shovel 



Plough 



Rabbit 





Saddle 



, Scythe 






Squirrel Suspenders Spider 



t '11 ] 

(27th EXERCISE.) 




Soldier 



Snuffers 




Thimble 




Tumbler 




Umbrella 




Parasol 






Violin Waggon Compasses 



*»&' 






Spectacles Scissars 



Square 



L 112 ] 

(27t/l EXERCISE.) 




Lantern 



Trowel 




Barrel 



Scales 




Skeleton 



r* 



Lancet 




Gimblet 



% *Jf 



Steelyard 



[ 113 ] 



28th EXERCISE. 

To practise the Pupils, as with the 5th, Uth and 20th 

Exercises. 








i ■ ■ ■ i , j 




L H4 J 

(28 //l EXERCISE.) 










[ 115 ] 

(28/A EXERCISE.) 














[ H6 ] 

(28th EXERCISE.) 










f 




t 



% — f 



117 



29th EXERCISE. 



To practise 


the Pupils, as 


i with the 6th, 


12th and 1\st 




Exercises. 




Anchor 


Dagger 


Plough 


Violin 


Beggar 


Drummer 


Rabbit 


Waggon 


Bonnet '* Drunkard 


Shovel 


Compasses 


Bellows 


Funnel 


Saddle 


Spectacles 


Bottle 


Feather 


Scythe 


Scissars 


Basket 


Harrow 


Squirrel 


Square 


Curtains 


Hammer 


Suspenders 


i Lantern 


Church 


Hatchet 


Spider 


Barrel 


Candle 


Ladder 


Soldier 


Scales 


Circle 


Lobster 


Snuffers 


Trowel 


Cradle 


Monkey 


Thimble 


Skeleton 


Coffin 


Mortar 


Tumbler 


Lancet 


Castle 


Oyster 


Umbrella 


Gimblet 


Cannon 


Pincers 


Parasol 


Steelyard 



30th EXERCISE. 

Food and Drinks, and their kinds. 

1. Vegetables. 

Potato A potato grows under the ground. 

potatoes Potatoes are good roasted or boiled. 

turnips Turnips are good boiled. 

beets Beets are red and grow under ground. 

asparagus I am fond of asparagus. 

carrots Carrots are good in soup. 

parsnips I do not love parsnips. 

sal I ad I eat sallad witli oil and vinegar. 

cabbage Cabbage is wbolesome boiled. 

cucumbers She loves cucumbers and onions. 



[ "8 ] 

(30/A EXERCISE.) 

Celery Celery makes me sick. 

onions Onions have a strong smell. 

radishes She eats radishes without salt. 

horse-radish Horse-radish flies up my nose. 

beans Beans grow in a pod > Beans and peas grow 

peas Peas grow in a pod ^ in pods. 

spinage Pour some vinegar on your spinage. 

squash This is very good squash. 

pumpkins Pumpkins grow on vines. 

2. Meats. 

Beef Beef is the meat of an ox or a cow. 

beef-steak Beef -steak is broiled. 

roast-beef Roast-beef is cooked before the fire. 

corned-beef Corned-beef is boiled in a pot. 

veal Veal is the meat of a calf. 

veal-cutlet Veal-cutlet is fried in a pan. 

mutton Mutton is the meat of a sheep. 

lamb I love lamb and peas. 

pork Pork is the meat of a hog. 

fresh-pork I love fresh-pork ) Fresh-pork is better than 

salt-pork I love salt-pork \ salt-pork. 

pork-steaks Pork-steaks are good eating, 

bacon Bacon is pork salted and smoked. 

ham A good ham is the best of food. 

fowls Fowls are plenty about new-year. 

turkey Buy me a good large turkey. 

goose I bought a fat goose. 

duck Roast the duck for dinner. 

chickens I want a pair of chickens. 

quails Qjiails are too dear to buy. 

pigeons Pigeons are cheap at three cents. 

venison Venison is the meat of a deer. 

oysters He eats raw oysters. 

fried-oysters I love fried-oysters. 

stewed-oysters Stewed-oysters are best. 



Oyster-pye 

clams 

fried-clams 

sausages 

fish 

fresh-fish 

salt-fish 

hoiled-fish 

hroiled-fish 

fried-fish 



Beef-soup 

veal-soup 

mutton-soup 

lamb-soup 

calves-head-soup 

chicken-soup 

turtle-soup 

oyster-soup 

clam-soup 

vermicelli-soup 

Water-melon 

musk-melon 

limes 

figs 

lemons 

oranges 

apples 

peaches 

pears 

dates 

plums 



[ 119 ] 

(30th EXERCISE.) 

An oyster-pye is good. 
Clams are good food. 
Clams are best fried. I am fond of fried- 
clams. 
Sausages are made of the meat of a hog. 
Fishes swim in the water. 
Fresh-fish is wholesome food. 
Salt-fish does not spoil. 
"We had hoiled-fish for dinner. 
We had a broiled-fish at breakfast. 
I do not love fried-fish. 

5. Soups. 

I love beef-soup. 
He loves veal-soup. 
She loves mutton-soup. 
Lamb-soup is good for the sick. 
I am very fond of culves-head-soup. 
Make me some chicken-soup. 
We dined upon turtle-soup. 
The oyster-soup was excellent. 
Clam-soup is rich and nourishing. 
I am not fond of vermicelli-soup. 

4. Fruits. 

This is a red-core water-melon. 

The musk-melon is very sweet. 

Limes are sour. 

Figs are full of little seeds. 

Lemons are sour and have thick skins. 

Oranges are sweet. 

tipples are plenty this season. 

Peaches are scarce. 

Pears are not ripe. 

Dates grow in Africa. 

Plums grow on plum-trees. 



[ 120 J 

(30tk EXERCISE.) 

Prunes Prunes are dried plums, 

cherries Cherries are ripe in June and July, 

grapes Grapes grow on grape-vines, 

strawberries Strawberries are sold in little baskets, 

raspberries Raspberries are four cents a basket, 

cranberries Cranberries are eight cents a quart, 

gooseberries Gooseberries are dear. 

currants Currants and gooseberries make good tarts, 

pine-apple The pine-apple is delicious. 
5. Drinks. 

"Water I want a drink of water. 

cider Give me a drink of cider, 

wine I will drink some wine and water, 

porter Porter makes my head ache, 

beer I do not love beer ,• it is bitter, 

spirits Take some spirits and water, 

brandy Bathe his side with brandy. 

gin I cannot drink gin. 



3 1st EXERCISE. 

Household and Table Furniture. 

Side-board That is an elegant side-board. 

table Lay your hat on the table. 

chair Take a chair and sit down. 

looking-glass I see myself in the looking-glass. 

picture The picture hangs against the wall. 

wash-stand The wash-stand is too high. 

wash-basin Pour water in the wash-basin. 

soap Give me some soap to wash my hands. 

towel Hand me the towel. 

clock The clock stands in the corner. 

urn Put the urn on the table. 

mat Wipe your feet on the mat by the door. 



[ 



121 



] 



(31sf EXERCISE.) 

Rug This is a new rug. 

carpet The carpet is almost worn out. 

kettle Hung the kettle over the fire, 

tea-kettle Fill the tea-kettle. The tea-kettle boils: 

frying-pan The frying-pan is dirty ; clean it. 

gi id-iron Broil a fish on the grid-iron. 

griddle The griddle is broken, 

pail Go to the pump and bring a pail of water, 

spit Turn the spit or the meat will burn, 

ladle Take the ladle out of the pot. 

skimmer Skim the cream off the milk with the 

skimmer. 

broom Sweep the floor with the new broom. 

seat Take a seat if you please, 

bench Sit down on the bench. 

stool The stool is too low. 

sofa Take a seat on the sofa; if you please Ladies, 

bureau The bureau is full of clothes, 

drawer Open the drawer and take out the shawl, 

secretary The pen and ink are in the secretary. 

book-case Put this book in the book-case. 

candle The candle is almost burnt out. 

eandle-stick Clean the candle-stick. 

snuffers Bring me the snuffers. 

extinguisher Put out the candle with the extinguisher. 

bed Go up stairs and make up your bed. 

bolster The bolster is gone, 

pillow The pillow is dirty, 

pillow-case Put on a clean pillow-case. 

bed-stead The bed-stead has high posts, 

bed-clothes I have not bed-clothes enough to keep me 

warm, 

mattress I sleep on a mattress in summer, 

straw-bed A straw-bed is best in hot weather* 

feather-bed A feather-bed is best in cold weather, 

sheels There are no sheets on my bed* 

P. 



[ 



122 



] 



(3\st EXERCISE.) 

Blaukel I have only one blanket. 

bed-spread The bedspread is clean, 

bed-curtains I took down the bed-curtains. 

counterpane This is a beautiful white counterpane. 

bed-pan You must get a bed-pan ; he is sick and 

cannot rise, 

bed-quilt I am making a bcd-quilt. 

warming-pan The bed was warmed with a warming-pan. 

cup Give me a cup of tea. 

saucer The saucer is cracked, 

porringer The porringer is full, 

tumbler Give me a tumbler of beer, 

coffee-pot The coffee-pot is empty, 

milk-pot The milk-pot is full, 

lamp Light the lamp. The lamp is lighted, 

wick The wick is too thick, 

shovel The shovel is bent, 

tongs Hand me the tongs. 

salt-celer Fill the salt-celer. 

pepper-box Empty the pepper-box. 

sauce-boat Take care, you will upset the sauce-boat. 

pitcher Fill the pitcher with cider, 

tea-pot Put the tea in the tea-pot. 

sugar-dish There is the sugar-dish. 

poker The fire burns dull ; hand me the poker. 
smoothing-iron The smoothing-iron is hot. 

bellows Blow the fire with the bellows. 

and-irons Clean the and-irons. 

grate Bring some coal to put in the grate. 

fender Put the jfiender before the fire, 

tub The tub leaks, 

mustard-pot The mustard-pot is cracked, 

vinegar-cruet There is no vinegar in the vinegar-cruet. 

oil-cruet I have just filled the oil-cruet wish oil. 

glass Give me the glass, I want a drink, 

decanter The decanter has nothing in It. 



f 



123 



} 



Slop-bowl 

Mindow-curtains 

plate 

knife 

fork 

spoon 

dish 

dishes 

tea-cup 

coffee-cups 

sugar-tongs 

tea-spoon 

table-spoon 

soup-ladle 



(31 St EXERCISE.) 

Get the slop-bowl out of the closet. 

The window -curtains are dirty. 

Change my plate. 

My knife is dirty ; so is my fork. 

Give me a clean knife and fork. 

Bring me a spoon. 

Put the bam on the large dish. 

Wash the dishes. 

Fill my tea-cup. 

The coffee-cups are large. 

The sugar-tongs are made of silver. 

The lea-spoon is bent. 

The table-spoon is heavy. 

The soup-ladle is in the closet. 



32d EXERCISE. 
A House, Us Paris and Materials. 



House 

wooden-bouse 

stone-bouse 

brick-bouse 

foundation 

walls 

partitions 

rooms 

ceiling 

floor 

fire-place 

mantle-piece 

jambs 

flares 

tunnel 

stoop 
steps* 



This house stands alone. 

That is a wooderkhouse. 

He lives in a stone-house. 

He owns a brick-house. 

The foundation is made of stone. 

The walls are very high. 

The partitions are made of brick. 

The rooms of this house are large. 

The ceilings are very white. 

The floor is dirty. 

The fire-place smokes. 

The mantle-piece is wood. 

The jambs and flares are marble. 

The jlares are black with smoke. 

The smoke goes up the tunnel of the 

chimney. 
Your house has a high stoop. 
I fell on the steps of the stoop. 



t 



124 



J 



(32rf EXERCISE.) 

Scraper There is a scraper by the door, 

bell Ring the bell. 

knocker I cannot reach the knocker. 

gate Open the gate. 

door Shut the door after you. 

hinge The hinge of the door is broken, 

bar Put the bar upon the door at night, 

bolt The door has no bolt. 

lock Turn the key to lock the door, 

key The key is lost and the lock is broke, 

key-hole He is peeping through the key-hole. 

latch Lift the latch and open the door, 

pad-lock There is a pad-lock on the gate, 

door-lock The door-lock is out of order, 

stairs He fell down stairs and hurt himself, 

stair-railing The boy fell over the stair-railing and was 

killed, 

bannisters Some of the bannisters are loose, 

kitchen That is a smoky kitchen. 

story This is a three story house, 

garret There are bed-rooms in the garret. 

front-room The front-room is a very large one. 

parlour The parlour is in the second story, 

library The library is in the back room, 

dining-room The dining-room is on the first floor, 

bed-room My bed-room is small, 

closet Come out of the closet. 

shelf Lay the bread on the shelf. 

pantry The butter is in the pantry. 

oven We baked an oven full of pies, 

chimney The chimney wants to be swept, 

hearth The hearth has settled, 

corner My cane stands in the corner. 

roof This house has a slate roof. 

rafters The rafters are rotten, 

beams The floor is laid upon the beams. 



Gutter 

leader 

posts 

fence 

window 

blinds 

glass 

pane 

sash 

shutter 

lime 

clay 

mortar 



I 125 j 

(32d EXERCISE.) 
The rain falls on the roof, and runs into the gutter. 
The leader carries the rain into the cistern. 
The posts of the fence are high. 
'Vhis fence is made of boards. 
The window has no shutters. 
There are inside blinds. 
The panes of glass are large. 
There is one pane broken. 
Raise the sash. 
Open the shutter. 
Lime is white. 
Clay is yellow. 
Mortar is made of lime, sand and clay. 



33d EXERCISE. 

A Miscellaneous Exercise on preceding Words. 

They live on vegetables. 



I drink tea. 

He drinks coffee. 

She sleeps late. 

We rise early. 

It is early. 

It is not late. 

I love you. 

We go to school. 

It is my book. 

They eat fish. 

He saw us. 

This book is mine. 

The hat is his. 

The marbles are yours. 

That is my money. 

They are her apples. 

This is his knife. 

The pens are ours. 

He lives on fish. 



She eats potatoes. 

They eat beets. 

I love turnips. 

He loves asparagus. 

Eat the carrots. 

I eat pork and parsnips, 

Sallad makes me sleepy. 

I eat boiled cabbage. 

She eats cucumbers. 

Your breath smells of onions. 

Onions have a strong smell. 

Onions smell bad. 

Radishes are good if tender. 

He hates horse-radish. 

It burns my mouth. 

It flies up my nose. 

They tasted the bean*. 

I love squashes. 



L 



120 



1 



(33(7 EXERCISE.) 
He eats boiled pork & squash. Bake the apples. 
Spinage tastes good. Give uic fried elams. 

I drink water. I want an orange. 

You drink cider. Give me a penny. 

He drinks wine. This is a large house. 

We drink porter. It cost a great deal. 

They drink beer. It was built last year. 

I tasted the spirits and water. The grapes arc green. 



He smells the brandy. 
He drinks gin. 
The beef is fat. 
The pork is sweet. 
The veal is poor. 
The mutton is bad. 
I dined on lamb and peas. 
He dines on beef-steak. 
She eats veal-cutlet. 
They dine on turkey. 
Do you cut the beef. 
Blow the fire. 
You will burn the turkey. 
Kill the ducks for dinner. 
Open the oysters. 
Roast the venison. 
Boil the fowls. 
Fry the sausages. 
Bake an oysier-pye. 
Let a fish be broiled. 



They arc not ripe. 

The house is on fire. 

Two houses were burnt down. 

They will be rebuilt. 

I saw a beggar. 

You must not beg. 

I saw the soldiers. 

They fired the guns. 

I was close by them. 

They jarred me very much. 

I did not hear them. 

The candle went out. 

Light it again. 

Make a circle. 

Stand in a circle. 

Make up a fire. 

Go to church. 

I saw him buried. 

We must all die. 



127 



34th EXERCISE. 

A Promiscuous Exercise. 

Morning Noon Night 

forenoon afternoon evening 

breakfast dinner supper 

I wake in the morning and get out of bed. 

Then I dress myself, and wash my hands and face. 

I cat my breakfast before I go to school. 

I go to school at nine o'clock in the morning. 

School is out at one o'clock in the afternoon. 

At twelve o'clock it is noon. 

When school is out I am hungry, and go home to dinner, 

There is no school in the afternoon. 

We drink tea in the afternoon. 

We are in school all the forenoon. 

We have supper at night. 

We study our lessons in the evening. 

I sleep at night up stairs in a bed. 

I eat bread, meat and potatoes at dinner. 

It was late in the evening before we drank tea. 

It was almost night when we drank tea. 

I eat bread and milk for my supper. 

I chew my meat with my teeth. 

The baby sucks ; it has no teeth, and cannot eat. 

I see the ladies in the room. 

I cannot speak because I am Deaf and Dumb. 

A rose has a sweet smell. 

It grows on a rose-bush. 

Lemonade is made of the juice of lemons or limes. 

Lemons and limes have a sour juice. 

My father gave me a picture book. 

I love my mamma and my papa. 

V say my prayers morning and night. 



[ 128 ] 



35th EXERCISE. 
NUMBERS. 

1 23 45 6 18910 





1st. Cardinal Numbers. 



One 


1 


Two 


2 


Three 


3 


Four 


4 


Five 


5 


Six 


6 


Seven 


7 


Eight 


8 


Nine 


9 


Ten 


10 


Eleven 


11 


Twelve 


12 


Thirteen 


13 


Fourteen 


14 


Fifteen 


15 


Sixteen 


16 


Seventeen 


17 


Eighteen 


18 


Nineteen 


19 


Twenty 


20 


Twenty-one 


21 


Twenty-two 


22 


Twenty-three 


23 



Twenty-four 24 

Twenty-five 25 

Twenty-six 26 

Twenty-seven 27 

Twenty eight 28 

Twenth-nine 29 

Thirty 30 

Thirty-one 31 

Thirty-two 32 

Thirty-three 33 

Thirty-four 34 

Thirty-five 35 

Thirty-six 36 

Thirty-seven 37 

Thirty-eight 38 

Thirty-nine 39 

Forty 40 

Forty-one 41 

Forty-two 42 

Forty-three 43 

Forty-four 44 

Forty -five 45 

Forty-six 46 



Forty-seven 47 

Forty-eight 48 

Forty-nine 49 

Fifty 50 

Fi fly-one 51 

Fifty-two 52 

Fifty -three 53 

Fifty-four 54 

Fifty-five 55 

Fifty-six 56 

Fifty-seven 57 

Fifty-eight 58 

Fifty-nine 59 

Sixty 60 

Sixty-one 61 

Sixty-two 62 

Sixty-three 63 

Sixty-four 64 

Sixty-five Go 

Sixty-six 66 

Sixty-seven 67 

Sixty-eight 68 

Sixty-nine 69 



] 



Seventy 

Seventy-one 

Seventy-two 

Seventy-three 

Seventy-four 

Seventy five 

Seventy-six 

Seventy-seven 

Seventy-eight 

Seventy-nine 

Eighty 

Eighty-one 

Eighty-two 

Eighty-three 

Eighty-four 

Eighty-five 

Eighty-six 

Eighty-seven 

Eighty-eight 

Eighty-nine 

Ninety 

Ninety-one 

Ninety-two 

Ninety-three 

Ninety-four 

Ninety-five 



First 

Second 

Third 

Fourth 

Fifth 

Sixth 

Seventh 

Eighth 



[ 129 

(35^ EXERCISE.) 

70 Ninety-six 

71 Ninety-seven 

72 Ninety-eight 

73 Ninety-nine 

74 One hundred 

75 One hundred and 

76 One hundred and 

77 One hundred and 

78 One hundred and 

79 One hundred and 

80 One hundred and 

81 One hundred and 

82 One hundred and 

83 One hundred and 
84b One hundred and 

85 Two hundred 

86 Three hundred 

87 Four hundred 

88 Five hundred 

89 Six hundred 

90 Seven hundred 

91 Eight hundred 

92 Nine hundred 

93 One thousand 

94 Ten thousand 

95 One million 

2d. Ordinal Numbers. 



one 

two 

three 

four 

five 

six 

seven 

eight 

nine 

ten 



1st 

2nd 

3rd 

4th 

5th 

6th 

7th 

8th 



Ninth 

Tenth 

Eleventh 

Twelfth 

Thirteenth 

Fourteenth 

Fifteenth 

Sixteenth 



96 

97 

98 

99 

100 

101 

102 

103 

104 

105 

i06 

107 

108 

109 

110 

200 

300 

400 

500 

600 

700 

800 

900 

1,000 

10,000 

1,000,000 



9th 
10th 
11th 
12th 
13th 
14th 
15th 
16th 







[ 1 


30 ] 










(35//* EXERCISE.) 






Seventeenth 




17th 


Fiftieth 




50th 


Eighteenth 




18th 


Sixtieth 




60th 


Nineteenth 




19th 


Seventieth 




70th 


Twentieth 




20th 


Eightieth 




80th 


Thirtieth 




30th 


Ninetieth 




90th 


Fortieth 




40th 


One hundredth 




100th 




3d. ; 


Numerical Adverbs. 






Firstly 




Fourthly Seventhly 


Secondly 




Fifthly Eighthly 


Thirdly 




Sixthly Ninthl; 


y 




4th. Roman Numbers. 






One 


1 


I 


Forty 


40 


XL 


Two 


& 


II 


Forty -five 


45 


XLV 


Three 


3 


III 


Fifty 


50 


L 


Four 


4 


IV 


Fifty-five 


55 


LV 


Five 


5 


V 


Sixty 


60 


LX 


Six 


6 


VI 


Sixty-five 


65 


LXV 


Seven 


7 


VII 


Seventy 


70 


LXX 


Eight 


8 


VIII 


Seventy-five 


75 


LXXV 


Nine 


9 


IX 


Eighty 


80 


LXXX 


Ten 


10 


X 


Eighty-five 


85 


LXXXV 


Eleven 


11 


XI 


Ninety 


90 


XC 


Twelve 


12 


XII 


Ninety-five 


95 


XCV 


Thirteen 


13 


XIII 


One hundred 


100 


C 


Fourteen 


14 


XIV 


Two hundred 


200 


CC 


Fifteen 


15 


XV 


Three hundred 


300 


CCC 


Sixteen 


16 


XVI 


Four hundred 


400 


CCCC 


Seventeen 


17 


XVII 


Five hundred 


500 


D 


Eighteen 


18 


XVIII 


Six hundred 


600 


DC 


Nineteen 


19 


XIX 


Seven hundred 


700 


DCC 


Twenty 


20 


XX 


Eight hundred 


800 


DCCC 


Twenty-five 


25 


XXV 


Nine hundred 


900 


DCCCC 


Thirty 


30 


XXX 


One thousand 1000 


M 


Thirty-five 


35 XXXV 









[ H2 ] 

36th EXERCISE. 
Compound Words represented by sensible Objects. 








Bed-stead Riding-chair Watch-chain 





Fish-hook Pen-knife Door-lock 





Pad-lock New-moon Full-moon 




Tea-pot 



[ 133 ] 
(36th EXERCISE.) 




Flower-pot 





Hand-saw Buck-saw 




Whip-saw 





Cork-screw Spider-web 




Bee-hive 



Broad-axe 



Tea-kettle 




And-iron 





I I* J 

(36/Zl EXERCISE.) 



' ^ y» ^ l 



SB 




Wine-glass Side-board Looking-glass 




Candle-stick Ink-stand Drawing-knife 




Hour-glass 





Arm-chair Scap-net 




Hobby-horse 



[ 135 ] 
(36/A EXERCISE.) 





Spinning-wheel Smoothing-iron Rat-trap 





Jews-harp Saw-buck Wheel-barrow 





Wind-mill Fire-engine Powder-horn 



[ 137 ] 

37th EXERCISE. 

To practise the Pupils, as with the 5th, 1 \th, 20th and 

28//j Exercises. 




[ 1M ] 

(37th EXERCISE.) 




[ 139 ] 

(31tk EXERCISE.) 





[ 140 ] 

38th EXERCISE. 
To practise the Pupils, as with the 6th, 12th, 21 stand 



Bed -stead 

Riding-chair 

Watch-chain 

Fish-hook 

Pen-knife 

Door-lock 

Pad-lock 

New-moon 

Full-moon 

Tea-pot 

Flower-pot 

Hand-saw 

Buck-saw 



29th Exercises. 

Whip-saw 

Cork-screw 

Spider-web 

Bee-hive 

Broad-axe 

Tea-kettle 

And-iron 

Wine-glass 

Side-board 

Looking-glass 

Candle-stick 

Ink-stand 

Drawing-knife 



Hour-glass 

Arm-chair 

Scap-net 

Hobby-horse 

Spinning-wheel 

Smoothing-iron 

Rat-trap 

Jews-harp 

Saw-buck 

Wheel-barrow 

Wind-mill 

Fire-engine 

Powder-horn 



School 

teacher 

teachers 

principal 

assistant-teacher 

under-teachcr 

tutor 

scholar 

letter 

syllabic 

word 

hook 



39th EXERCISE. 

A School and its Appendages. 

I go to the school for the Deaf and Dumb. 

The teacher learns us to read and write. 

We have three teachers. 

Mr. L. is principal. 

We have two assistant-teachers. 

We have no under-teacher. 

We have no fufor nor under-teacher. 

She is an attentive scholar. 

That is the first letter of the alphabet. 

The word has three syl-la-hles. 

I cannot speak that word. 

He tore a leaf out of my boot;. 



[ 



141 



3 



Page 

margin 

leaf 

alphabet 

desk 

benches 

form 

ink 

inkstand 

quill 

pen 

paper 

blotting-paper 

ruler 

slate 

pencil 

slate-pencil 

lead-pencil 

crayon 

sand-box 

seal 

wafer 

sealing-wax 

pen-knife 

writing-book 

pointer 

map 



Breakfast 
dinner 
supper 
tea 



(39th EXERCISE.) 

You must learn the whole page. 

The margin of the book is blotted. 

Turn over the leaf. 

Give me the Deaf and Dumb alphabet* 

It lies on the writing desk. 

These are long benches. 

The form is not high. 

I-have no ink. 

Fill his inkstand with ink. 

This quill is split. 

Mend my pen and make it good. 

She writes on paper. 

The blotting-paper absorbs the ink 

Bring me the round ruler. 

The slate is broken. 

My pencil is lost. 

Get me a slate-pencil. 

Buy me a lead-pencil. 

This crayon is not good : it is too hard. 

Fill the sand-box with black sand. 

The seal of the letter is broken. 

I have no wafer to seal my letter. 

Bring me the sealing-wax. 

My pen-knife is sharp. 

It is her writing-book. 

Hand the pointer to him. 

Look at the map. 



40th EXERCISE. 

Meals and their Parts. 

We take breakfast in the morning. 

Our dinner is not ready. 

They have eaten supper. 

We had cake and rusk with our tea. 



[ »« ] 

(40/A EXERCISE.) 

Coffee My coffee is not sweet. 

chocolate Stir your chocolate with the spoon. 

loaf Bring ine the loaf of wheat-bread. 

loaves Bake four loaves of bread. 

bread The bread is sour. 

wheat-bread I prefer wheat -bread to rye. 

rye-Vead Rye-bread is sweeter than wheal. 

fresh-bread i think fresh-bread and butter is best. 

stale-bread Stale-bread is best to make toast. 

biscuit The biscuit is excellent. 

cracker The cracker is hard. 

toast Make toast of the stale-bread. 

rusk He bakes fresh rusk every day. 

cake Give me a piece of cake. 

nut-cake I want a nut-cake. 

griddle-cakes I will make some griddle-cakes to-day. 

crumbs Save the crumbs of bread for the chicken su 

crust Give me the crust of bread. 

slice Take this slice of bread and butter. 

bit I have not had a bit before. 

mouthful He did not eat a mouthful. 

milk The cow gives a pail full of milk. 

cream Cream rises on the top of the milk. 

butter Butter is made of cream. 

cheese Cheese is made of milk. 

sugar Sugar is very sweet. 

meat Meat is boiled into soup. 

boiled-meat We have boiled-meat for dinner. 

fried meat We had fried-meat for breakfast. 

broiled-meat He loves broiled-meat. 

roast-meat I love roast-meat. 

bashed-mcat Take some of this hashed-meat. 

stewed-meat The stewed-meat is very good. 

eggs Fry the eggs with the ham. 

salt Put some salt on the meat. 



t 



143 



3 



Pepper 

pickles 

mustard 

oil 

vinegar 

custard 

pudding 

sweetmeats 

sauce 

jelly 

gravy 



(40/A EXERCISE.) 
The boiled meat has no pepper on it. 
Pickles are good with roast-meat. 
Mustard is not good for children. 
Oil is good on sallad, with salt and vinegar. 
Bring the vinegar to me. 
The custard is made of milk. 
This is a very good pudding. 
I am fond of sweetmeats. 
Put some sauce on my pudding. 
She is fond of jelly. 
Give me a spoonful of gravy. 



4lst EXERCISE. 

A Year and the Scaso?is. 

A year There are twelve months in a year. 

a month There are four weeks in a month. 

a week Therfe are seven days in a week. 

a day There are twenty-four hours in a day. 

an hour Jin hour has sixty minutes in it. 

a minute A minute has sixty seconds in it. 

a second *1 second is a short period of time. 

Spring Grass begins to grow in the Spring. 

Summer\ In Summer it is very hot. 

Autumn Apples are ripe in Jlutumn. 

Winter In Winter it is very cold. 

dawn of day I awoke at the dawn of day. 

sun-rise I saw the sun rise. I got up at sun-rist. 

morning The morning is pleasant. 

forenoon It rained thisjforaioon. 

noon We dine at noon. 

afternoon We have no afternoon school. 

sun-set The weather was clear at sun-set. 

evening The evening is cloudy. 

night It thundered at night. 



r 



1 11 



j 



(4 

Midnight 

to-day 

yesterday 

to-morrow 

Sunday 

Monday 

Tuesday 

"Wednesday 

Thursday 

Friday 

Saturday 

last year 
this year 
next year 
last month 

this month 
next month 
last week 
this week 

next week 

one hour 

two hours 

three hours 

half an hour 

a quarter of an hour 

an hour and a half 

an hour and a quarter 

beginning 

middle 

end 



1st EXERCISE.) 

He sat up till midnight. 

I am well to-day. 

I was sick yesterday. 

I am going to school to-morrow. 

Sunday is the first day of the week. 

Monday is the second day of the week. 

Tuesday is the third day of the week. 

Wednesday is the fourth day of tho 
week. 

Thursday is the fifth day of the week. 

Friday is the sixth day of the week. 

Saturday is the seventh day of the 
week. 

I lived in Albany last year. 

This year is most gone. 

I am going home next year. 

It was very pleasant weather last 
month. 

The name of this month is May. 

Next month is called June. 

I went into the bath last week. 

It is too cold this week to go in the 
water. 

Next week we shall have an exami- 
nation. 

School has been out one hour. 

I will go in two hours. 

You have been gone three hours. 

Come back again in half an hour. 

tA quarter of an hour is long enough. 

He was gone an hour and a half. 

You have been gone an hour and a 
quarter. 

This is the beginning of the year. 

This is the middle of the stick. 

This is the end of the string. 



[ 



145 



] 



One o'clock 
two o'clock 
three o'clock 
four o'clock 
five o'clock 
six o'clock 
seven o'clock 
eight o'clock 
nine o'clock 
ten o'clock 
eleven o'clock 
twelve o'clock 
aurora 
twilight 
Spring 
Sumner 
Autumn 
Winter 
season 
seasons 
January 
it 

Fehruary 

it 

March 
tt 

April 
a 

May 
a 

June 
a 

July 

to- 
August 



(415/ EXERCISE.) 

It is one o'clock. 

It is two o'clock. 

It is half after three o'clock. 

It wants half an hour of four o'clocki 

School will be out at Jive o'clock. 

It is not six o'clock. 

It wants a few minutes of seven o'clock. 

It is almost eight o'clock. 

It is after nine o'clock. 

It is nearly ten o'clock. 

At eleven o'clock I must go. 

It is noon at twelve o'clock. 

Aurora follows the dawn of day. 

Twilight follows sun-set. 

The grass begins to grow in the Spring. 

In Summer it is hot weather. 

Fruit is ripe in Autumn. 

It is cold weather in Winter. 

The cold season is past. 

There are four seasons in a year. 

January is the beginning of the year. 

January is the first month of the New Year. 

February is the month of snow. 

February is the second month in the year. 

March is the month of winds. 

March is the third month in the year. 

April is the month of rain. 

April is the fourth month in the year. 

May is the month of flowers. 

May is the fifth month in the year. 

June is the month of mowing. 

June is the sixth month in the year. 

Juy is the month of harvest. It is the month 

of Independence. 
July is the seventh month in the year. 
August is the month of heat. 
r 



E 



146 



1 



August 
September 
ft 

October 

a 

November 

tt 

December 



(41s£ EXERCISE.) 
August is the eighth month in the year. 
September is the month for apples. 
September is the ninth month in the year. 
October is the month for making cider. 
October is the tenth month in the year. 
November is the month to begin making lire. 
November is the eleventh month in the year, 
December is the month of cold weather. 
December is the twelfth month in the year. 
It is the last month in the year. 



43d EXERCISE. 

Water and its Conditions, 

Water I want some water to drink, 
fresh-water Give me somefresh-wuter. 

salt-water The sea contains salt-water. 

©lear-water This is not clear-water. 

dirty-water It is dirty-water. 

muddy-water That is muddy-water. 

puddle You will step into that puddle, 

frost There was a heavy frost last night, 

ice I saw ice in the yard, 

snow Snow falls in the winter, 

hail The hail broke the windows, 

sleet Sleet is fine snow intermixed with rain, 

rain The rain fell in heavy showers, 

river The river is full offish, 

spring Give me some water from the spring. 

fountain The fountain is in high ground, 

rain-water The cistern is full of rain-water. 

river-water The river-water is not good to drink, 

spring-water Give me some spring-water. 

warm-water Bring me some warm-water to shave myself, 

cold-water This is very cold-water. 

hot-water He was scalded with hot-water. 






Brook 

creek 

rivulet 

pond 

lake 

sea 

ocean 

dew 

fog 

torrent 

cascade 

rapids 

waves 

tide 

ebb 
flood 

pump- water 

well-water 

mineral-water 



t 147 ] 

(42d EXERCISE.) 
I jumped over the brook. 
He waded through the creek. 
The rivulet runs in a gentle stream. 
He was fishing in the pond. 
He was drowned in the lake. 
The ship was lost at sea. 
The waves of the ocean roll very high. 
His feet are wet with dew. 
The sun dispersed the fog. 
The river rushes in a torrent over the rocks. 
I have seen the cascade at Paterson. 
There are many rapids in the river. 
The waves overwhelmed him, and he was 

drowned. 
The tide ebbs and flows seven feet in New- 
York. 
It is ebb tide. The tide is ebb. 
It was flood tide this morning. The tide is 
Jlood. 
Go and bring a pail of pump-water. 
Draw a bucket of well-water. 
I drank some mineral-water. 



43d EXERCISE. 

WIND AND WEATHER. 

Air Rise early and take the fresh air in the 

morning, 

wind The wind blows furiously, 

zephyr A gentle zephyr is blowing, 

breeze The wind blows a strong breeze. 

gale The wind blows a heavy gale. 

storm I was out last night in the storm. 

tempest I was at sea in a tempest. 

whirlwind The whirlwind blew down a house. 



1. 



148 



J 



Hurricane 

calm 

weather 

clear-weather 

cloudy- weather 

fine-weather 

bad-weather 

rainy -weather 

wet-weather 

dry-weather 

stormy-weather 

warm- weather 

cold-weather 

heavy-weather 

windy-weather 

foggy- weather 

blustering-weather 

snowy- weather 

eool-weather 

settled-weather 



(43rf EXERCISE.) 
The hurricane sunk several ships. 
It hecame calm after the hurricane. 
The weather cleared up and it was 

pleasant. 
The clear-weather was agreeable. 
The cloudy-weather was disagreeable. 
"We haw fine-weather for the season. 
The bad-weather is uncomfortable. 
Rainy-weather is not pleasant. 
Wet-iveather is unpleasant. 
It is dry-xvealhcr. 
The stormij-wealher is past. 
Warm-weather has begun. 
Cold-weather is to come. 
It is dull and heavy-weaiher. 
This is windy -weather. 
We had foggy-weather yesterday. 
It is cold and blustering-weather. 
The snowy-weather continues. 
The cool-weather made me sick. 
It has at last become settled-wealher. 



44th EXERCISE. 

Verbs in the Present, Past and Future. 

To make, I make pens, I made pens, 

I will make pens, 
to mend, I mend my clothes, I mended my clothes, 

I will mend my clothes, 
to wear, She wears a cap, S/ie wore a cap, 

I will wear a cap. 
to cut, I cut my finger, He cut his finger, 

He will cut his finger, 
to sow, The farmer sows wheat The fanner sowed wheat 

He will sow wheat. 



[ 149 ] 

(44th EXERCISE.) 
To tear, He tears the hook, He tore the hook, 

lie ivill tear the hook, 
to fly, Tlie birdies away, the bird^ew away, 

The bird will fly away, 
to sail, The hoat sails, the boat sailed, 

The hoat will sail, 
to swim, I sivim in deep water, I sivam in deep water, 

I will swim in deep water, 
to crack, I crack a nut, I cracked a nut, 

I will crack a nut. 
to wash, She washes clothes, she washed clothes, 

She will wash clothes, 
to cool, The air cools me, the air cooled me, 

The air will cool me. 
to spell, She spells correctly, he spelled wrong, 

He ivill spell correctly, 
to read, I read my book, she read her book, 

He ivill read his book, 
to absorb, The sponge absorbs, the sponge absorbed, 

The sponge will absorb. 
to congeal, Water congeals into ice, water congealed into ice, 

Water will congeal into ice. 
to brush, He brushes my coat, he brushed my coat, 

He will brush my coat, 
to iron, She irons the clothes, she ironed the clothes, 

She will iron the clothes, 
to clean, He cleans the shoes, he cleaned the shoes, 

He will clean the shoes, 
to broil, She broils a fish, she broiled a fish, 

She will broil a fish, 
to boil, The pot boils, the pot boiled, 

The pot will boil. 
to roast, She roasts the meat, she roasted the meat. 

She will roast the meat, 
to fry, She fries fish, she fried the fish, 

She will fry the fish. 



[ 150 ] 

(Aith EXERCISE.) 

To stew, I stew the apples, I slewed the apples, 

I will stcio the apples, 
to carve, I carve the turkey, I carved the turkey, 

I will carve the turkey, 
to bake, The baker bakes bread, he baked bread, 

He will bake bread, 
to knead, She kneads the bread, she kneaded the bread, 

She will knead the bread, 
to bubble, The water bubbles, the water bubbled, 

The water will bubble. 
to overflow, The river overflows, the river overflowed, 

The river will overflow. 
to write, He writes a letter, he xvrote a letter, 

He will write a letter, 
to correct, He corrects me, he corrected me, 

He will correct me. 
to convert, She converts me, she converted me, 

She will convert me. 
to rinse, She rinses the clothes, she rinsed the clothes, 

She will rinse. 
to knock, He knocks at the door, he knocked at the door, 

He will knock. 
to lock, I lock the door, I locked the door, 

I will lock the door, 
to bolt, He bolts the door, he bolted the door, 

He will bolt the door, 
to furnish, I furnish the cloth, 1 furnished the cloth, 

I will furnish. 
to set, The sun sets at night, the sun set in a cloud, 

The sun will set to-morrow, 
to put, She puts out the fire, she put out the fire, 

Water will put out the fire, 
to shut, He shuts the door, he shut the door, 

He will shut the door, 
to open, He opens the door, he opened the door, 

He will open the door. 



[ 151 ] 

(44/A EXERCISE.) 
To light, He lights a candle, He lighted a candle, 

He will light a candle, 
to snuff, She snuffs the candle, she snuffed the candle, 

I will snuff the candle, 
to thunder, It thunders, It thundered, 

It will thunder. 
to lighten, It lightens, It lightened, 

It will lighten. 
to fold, I fold a letter, I folded a letter, 

I will fold a letter, 
to unfold, She unfolds the linen, she unfolded the linen. 

She will unfold, 
to erase, I erase the word, I erased the word, 

I kh71 erase the word, 
to wipe, I wipe my face, I wiped my face, 

I wtfM wipe my face, 
to rub, He rubs the horse's back he rubbed his back. 

He will rub his back, 
to sweep, He sweeps chimnies, he sivept the chimney. 

He will sweep. 
to rain, It rains now, it rained this morning, 

It will rain again, 
to hail, It hails, it hailed last night, 

It will hail. 
to snow, It snows, it snowed yesterday, 

It will snow to-night, 
to freeze, It freezes, it froze hard last night. 

It will freeze, 
to thaw, It thaws, the sun thawed the snow. 

It xvill thaw. 
to blow, The wind blows, the wind Mowed, 

The wind will blow. 
to flow, The tide flows high, the tide flowed high, 

The tide will flow high, 
to dry, The sun dries the ground, the sun dried the ground 

The sun will dry the ground. 



[ 152 } 

(44/A EXERCISE.) 
to teach, He teaches me, he taught me, 

He will teach me. 
to learn, He learns his lesson, he learned his lesson, 

He will learn his lesson, 
to seal, I seal the letter, I sealed the letter, 

I will seal the letter, 
to direct, lie directs the letter, he directed the letter. 

He will direct the letter. 



45th EXERCISE. 




[ 153 ] 



45th EXERCISE. 



Before 
behind 
after 
in 

into 
within 
out of 
h 

without 
with 
through 
midst 
amid 
instead 
upwards 
downwards 
over 
above 
beneath 
under 
t* 

for 

during 

below 

down 

on 

among 

up 

up 

tipon 



Prepositions. 

The man is before the dog. 
The dog is behind the man. 
The dog runs after the man. 
The cane is in his hand. 
The boy is looking into the well. 
The sword is within the cane. 
He walks out of the house. 
The rabbit is coming out of the hole in the tree. 
He came to school without his book. 
I write with a pen. 
The boy is looking through the fence. 
She is in the midst of trouble. 
Amid her fears she forgot her child. 
He goes instead of me. 
I am looking upwards. 
She is looking downwards. 
The bird flies over his head. 
The clouds are above the bird. 
The dust is beneath his feet. 
Your hat is under the bench. 
The grass is under his feet. 
I am going/or the Doctor. 
She left me during my sickness. 
They are in the room below. 
The boy is running down hill. 
The nuts are on the tree. 
They are found among the leaves; 
We are going up stairs. 
The squirrel runs up the tree. 
The book is upon the table, 
v 



E 



154 



] 



(45/A EXERCISE.) 

About The beggars are about the door, 

about The flies are about the sugar, 

about The boys are about the fire, 

to I am going to dinner, 

at He is waiting at the door, 

from The lamp hangs from the ceiling. 

a The grapes hang/ront the vine, 

off He cut off his finger with an axe. 

from, till She wept jfrom morn till night, 

from, to He slept from sun-set to sun-rise, 

from, till The bells runt* from noon till night, 

from, to He cameyro7n home to school, 

till "Wait here till I return, 

towards The man walks towards the tree, 

around They turn around in dancing. 

" The vine twists around the tree, 

on this side We are on this side the fence, 

on that side He is on that side the fence, 
the other side That house is on the other side of the river, 

across He goes across the river. 

« The boat sails across the river, 

along The boat sailed along the river; 

over He swam over the river, 

beyond He went beyond his strength, 

beyond They gave beyond their ability, 

between The stick is between his legs. 

in The whip is in the boy's hand, 

against He struck his toe against the stone, 

beside The man is drunk ; he is beside himself, 

besides He is rich and has good qualities besides. 

by He lives by his industry, 

among She lives among her friends, 

opposite They live opposite to us. 

beyond He lives beyond Albany. 

« The house is beyond the woods. 



Well 

ill 

bravely 

prudently 

softly 

truly 

undoubtedly 

surely 

yes 

certainly 

no, not 

not 

no one 

nowise 

namely 

apart 

separately 

asunder 

together 

generally 

universally 

why 

wherefore 

when 

how 

very 

exceedingly 

too 

too much 

too little 



[ 155 ] 

46th EXERCISE. 
ADVERBS. 

I am very well. It is well done, my boy. 

He is very ill. 

He defended himself bravely. 

She behaves prudently. 

Walk .softly over the floor. 

He is truly a great man. 

He is undoubtedly dead. 

Surely you are not in earnest. 

Fes I am in earnest. 

It is certainly true. 

No, I will not believe it. 

It is not true,- I cannot believe it. 

No one disputes it, for we know he was 
drowned. 

He who seeks God, will in nowise be cast 
down. 

The days of the week are seven, namely, 
Monday, &c. 
' The boys are fighting ; take them apart. 

Hand the books separately to me. 

The roeks were torn asunder. 

Tie the quills together in a bunch. 

A liar is generally despised. 

God is universally adored. 

I will tell you why it will not do. 

He frequently tells lies, wherefore I cannot 

believe him. 
I do not know when he will return. 
I cannot say how often he struck him. 
He acted very rude in church. 
He is exceedingly cautious. 
I will go with you, and he too may go. 
He eats too much at dinner. 
It is better to eat too little than too much. 



t 



156 



3 



(46//* EXERCISE.) 

As much as He gave me as much as I could carry. 

inasmuch You shall have it, inasmuch as I promised yo«. 

almost It is almost sun-down. It is almost one o'clock. 

nearly It is nearly dinner time. 

rather I would rather sleep in this room, 

especially Especially if I must sleep alone. 

chiefly My time is chiefly occupied in reading. 

so As all men die, so must you and I. 

thus Thus saith the scriptures ; seek and ye shall 

find, 

as I advise you as a friend, not to forget it. 

else There was no one else in company with him. 

otherwise Otherwise I should have seen it. 

piece-meal He does his work by piece-meal. 

scarcely There was scarcely any water to put out the 

fire, 

hardly I can hardly believe him. 

here Here is a small slate, 

there If it is there you will find it. 

where Can you tell me where he is gone ? 

any- where I cannot find him any-where. 

no-where He is no-where to be found, 

some-where He must be some-where. 

hither He came hither from Albany, 

thither He is going thither again, 

whither Whither he is gone I do not know, 

homeward I met him going homeward. 

hence I am going hence directly, 

thence He is soon coming from thence. 

whence Let us go to the place from whence he came, 

now I cannot go now. 

to-day I will go sometime to-day. 

long ago I remember him long ago. 

long since We have been long since acquainted, 

yesterday Yesterday it rained very hard, 

before I must see him before we go. 



[ 



157 



J 



1 leretofore 

formerly 

already 

liitlierto 

lately 

since 

ever 

to-morrow 

hereafter 

presently 

immediately 

afterwards 

often 

seldom 

frequently 

finally 

once 

twice 

thrice 

again 

four times 

five times 

six times 

much 

little 

enough 

sufficiently 

far 

farther 

sideways 

lately 

this morning 

this month 

daily 

weekly 

monthly 



(46th EXERCISE.) 
Heretofore we rose early. 
I was formerly acquainted with him> 
It is already one o'clock. 
Hitherto we have heen friends. 
He has lately arrived. 
Since we came here we have been friends. 
He is ever ready to oblige. 
To-morrow we must go to church. 
Hereafter we must not be idle. 
The steam-boat will pass by presently. 
He went to school immediately after dinner. 
He afterwards returned for his book. 
He is often in the street. 
The idle boy seldom learns his lesson. 
He must be frequently whipped. 
He at first refused, but finally consented. 
I saw him once before. 
He struck me twice with his fist. 
Thrice did the lightning flash. 
Come again to-morrow. 
He struck me four times. 
I have told you five limes. 
Six times two are twelve. 
He had much to say. 
She has eaten a very little. 
You do not give me enough for a shilling. 
I have eaten sufficiently. 
How far did you walk ? 
He walked fa rther than we did. 
He walks sideways. 
They have lately returned. 
They went this morning. 
They will not return this month. 
I expect him to arrive daily. 
He comes weekly with butter. 
We pay the milk-man monthly, 



E 



158 



J 



(46//i EXERCISE.) 

Quarterly Rent is paid quarterly in New-York, 

yearly They have a yearly feast on Christmas, 

not yet It is not yet time to go to sehool. 

instantly lie fell from a window and was instantly 

killed, 

never She is never in the right, 

sometimes He is sometimes erazy. 

usually She is usually in a good humor, 

ever She is ever ready to oblige, 

while He shook the table ivhile I was writing, 

then And then he struck me. 

always You are always ready to do good, 

eternally The earth is eternally moving, 

more than I can get more than that for it. 

quickly The soldiers marched quickly. 

slowly The funeral moved sloivly. 

perhaps Perhaps I will go to-morrow, 

in time If he arrives m time. 

probably He probably will arrive, 

possibly Fossibly he may arrive, 

really I really think he will, 

indeed Indeed, I do not see why he will not. 

quite I am quite out of patience in waiting. 

by all means Come here to-morrow by all means. 

by no means I will disappoint you by no means. 

by any means 1 will not disappoint you by any means. 

not at all Come with punctuality, or come not at all. 



47th EXERCISE. 
Conjunctions. 

If I am willing, if you are willing. 

unless I cannot go, unless you go. 

yet It appears true, yet I doubt it. 

but But if it is true, I will acknowledge it. 

so that Go soon, so that I may go too. 



[ 



159 



J 



So 

still 

else 

though, yet 

either, or 

neither, nor 

and 

neither 

neither, nor 

lest 

sinec 

notwithstanding 

nevertheless 

save 

except 

because 

to wit 

provided 

although 

also 

therefore 

besides 
then 
then 
otherwise 

however 

without 



(47/A EXERCISE.) 
He is deficient in knowledge, so is she. 
You tell me so, still I am in doubt. 
He must go, or else you must. 
Though he slay me, yet wii' I trust in him. 
Either you must go, or I must. 
Neither you, nor she must go. 
Sally and Mary are handsome girls. 
John and James, are neither of them bad 

boys. 
Neither John nor James is a bad boy. 
Take care lest you are hurt. 
It is best to proceed, since we are here. 
He persisted, notwithstanding I told him 

the danger. 
The law is so, nevertheless I will submit. 
Give him forty save one. 
I will do as you bid, except in one thing. 
Because it is morally wrong. 
He wrote in the words following, to wit. 
I will go, provided my expenses are paid. 
He shot the man, although he knew the 

consequence. 
This house is for sale, also the household 

furniture. 
He does not know his lesson, therefore he 

must study. 
They are idle, besides being lazy. 
Then neither will improve. 
I ate my breakfast, then I went to school. 
You must pay me, otherwise I cannot work 

for you. 
There is an other reason, however, for my 

refusal. 
I cannot do it, without his consent. 



[ »60 ] 

48th EXERCISE. 



Promiscuous Exercises. 

Come, let us go to school. 

It is too soon to go to school. 

I saw the teacher go to school. 

It will be late when we get there. 

School will be in before we get there. 

The teacher will be there before us. 

There goes the teacher. 

Mr. L. Miss S. and Mr. M. are our teachers. 

School goes in at nine o'clock. 

School is out at one o'clock. 

"We have fifty-four pupils in our school. 

Some of the scholars are not attentive. 

The pupils who are attentive will make good scholars. 

The Deaf and Dumb do not speak. 

Tie is sick and cannot speak a word. 

This book was given to me by a friend. 

There are one hundred pages in this book. 

Your book has a wide margin. 

Several leaves are torn out of the book. 

She does not know the alphabet. 

He has been three days learning the alphabet. 

This ink is very black. 

This is very black ink. 

That is very pale ink. 

That ink is very pale. 

The ink-stand is full of ink. 

This quill will not make a good pen. 

I cannot write on this paper. 

The paper is very coarse. 

I wrote a letter to my mother. 

It was sealed with sealing-wax. 



[ 161 ] 

49th EXERCISE. 
Promiscuous Exercises. 

I have eaten no breakfast this morning. 
I have not eaten breakfast this morning. 
I am going away before dinner. 
I am coming back after dinner. 
Give the children an early supper. 
The tea is too strong. 
I want to eat some rye bread. 
Let me have fresh bread and butter. 
We had crackers and cheese after dinner. 
The buiscuit is very hard and dry. 
The griddle-cake was hot and burnt me. 
Do not drop the crums on the floor. 
The crust is hard and has broken my tooth. 
Cut me a piece of bread and butter. 
I only want a little bit. 
He did not eat a mouthful. 
I bought a pail of butter. 
I bought a firkin of butter. 
Buy me a roll of fresh butter. 
Cut some cheese and put it on the table. 
We had fried eggs for dinner. 
Let us take a walk after dinner. 
I am going in the country to-morrow. 
I will cat bread and milk for my supper. 
We had apples and oranges after dinner. 
I drank two glasses of wine. 
He only drank a little wine and water. 
I am very fond of sweet-meats. 
I ate too many sour cherries. 
I do not feel very well to-day. 
You are sick, because you ate too many cherries. 
If we eat too much, it will make us sick. 
We should take care of our health as wall as our money. 
W 



• 



50th EXERCISE. 

Promiscuous Exercises. 

Spring is the season of blossoms. 

Summer is the season of heat. 

Autumn is the season of fruits. 

Winter is the season of cold. 

The cock crows in the morning. 

I arose this morning by day-light. 

It was very pleasant this morning at sun-rise. 

The sun rose at five o'clock this morning. 

I saw the sun rise this morning. 

I walked five miles before breakfast. 

We took breakfast at eight o'clock. 

I was very hungry before breakfast. 

We had a very late breakfast. 

It was very late before we ate breakfast. 

I was much fatigued with my walk. 

My walk fatigued me very much. 

I was tired when I returned from my walk. 

I was refreshed after eating breakfast. 

Nothing shall deter me from study. 

There was no school last week. 

There will be school next week. 

The teacher was sick, but he has recovered. 

You came half an hour too late. 

You are an hour and a half too soon. 

January is the beginning of the year. 

January is the first month in the year. 

New- Year is on the first day of January. 

January is the first month of the New- Year. 

The middle of the day is at noon. 

Noon is the middle of the day. 

Bring me another candle, my candle is out. 

My candle is burnt out, bring me another. 

Be prepared for death, for we must all die. 



t 103 j 

5 1st EXERCISE. 

Promiscuous Exercises. 



4 



Rain falls from the clouds. 

The earth absorbs the rain that falls. 

Rain falls from the clouds in drops. 

The drops of rain unite into water. 

The water rises and issues from a spring. 

The spring becomes a fountain. 

From the fountain runs a rivulet. 

The rivulet increases into a brook. 

The brook becomes a river. 

The river runs into a lake or the ocean. 

A pond is a small lake. 

The water of lakes and rivers is fresh. 

w 
The ocean contains salt water. 

Water freezes into ice and becomes hard. 

Rain is congealed into snow or hail. 

Ice is melted and converted into water. 

Dew is on the grass in summer. 

The heat of the sun evaporates the dew. ^ 

The dew collects at night. 

Cold weather converts dew into frost. 

The tide is on the ebb. 

The tide is on the flood. 

It is ebb tide. It is flood tide. 

The wind is air in motion. 

There is no wind stirring in a calm. 

A calm is the absence of wind. 

A zephyr is a gentle wind. 

The wind increases to a breeze. 

A gale is a strong wind. 

A strong wind and bad weather make a storm. 

The storm h«* increased to a tempest. 

The whirlwind makes g^at destruction. 

The hurricane is a continued whirlwind. 



[ iw ] 

52d EXERCISE. 

Promiscuous Exercises. 
Make my clothes before Sunday. 
I am mending your coat. 
He cut off my buttons. 
The bird flies in the air. 
The boat sails on the water. 
The ducks swim in the pond. 
Crack the nuts with the hammer. 
Do not dirty my clothes with your feet. 
"Wash your hands and face before you eat. 
Cool your soup before you eat it. 
I am refreshed by the breeze. 
You spell the word wrong. 
He read the book through. 
Brush my coat behind. 
* Iron the ruffle with a hot smoothing-iron. 
Clean my boots and shoes. 
Broil the beef-steak for dinner. 
The beef is boiled, and dinner is ready. 
She is roasting the turkey before the fire. 
Fry the oysters in the pan. 
Stew the meat in a pot. 

The meat is on the table, and dinner is waiting. 
Bread is baked in an oven. 
The baker kneads the bread before it is baked. 
The water bubbles, and the spring overflows. 
I wrote a letter to my father. 
Correct my letter before I send it. 
Rinse your mouth with warm-water. 
I knocked at the door, and he opened it. 
Lock the door when I go out. 
Bolt the door after me. 
He will furnish you with clothes. 
She set it down in the street. 



[ 165 ] 

(52d EXERCISE.) 

Put on your hat and go to school. 

Open the door and shut it after you. 

Light a candle, and then I can see. 

The candle wants snuffing. 

Snuff the candle, and I can see hetter. 

It thunders and lightens. 

The ham was struck by thunder and lightning. 

The lightning set the harn on fire. 

Fold the letter, seal and direct it. 

Now my letter is sealed and directed. 

That line is hadly written ; erase it. 

Wipe the sweat off my face. 

My face is wet with sweat. 

Rub out the figures on your slate. 

Sweep the room clean before I come back. 

It rains and hails, and the wind blows. 

It snowed all night, and the snow is very deep. 

The sun is warm and thaws the snow. 

The ground is wet with the melting of the snow. 

I try to teach him, but he will not learn. 

Idleness is the root of all evil. 

The idle man will come to want. 






[ ** J 

53d EXERCISE. 
VESSELS AND THEIR KINDS. 





Boat 



Row-boat 





Skiff 



Canoe 




M 9 




Sail-boat 



Horse-boat 



[ 167 ] 

(53d EXERCISE.) 







Steam-boat 




Sloop 







Schooner 






* 



Frigate. 





[ ** ] 






54th EXERCISE. 


4 


Vessels and their Paris. 


Boat 


Stern 


Cable 


Row-boat 


Oar 


Anchor 


Skiff 


Paddle 


Guns 


Canoe 


Mast 


Cannon 


Sail-boat 


Masts 


Port-holes 


Horse-boat 


Sail 


Pistol 


Steam-boat 


Sails 


Bayonet 


Sloop 


Ropes 


Cannon-ball 


Schooner 


Yards 


Grape-shot 


Brig 


Bowsprit 


Bullet 


Ship 


Deck 


Drum 


Frigate 


Cabin 


Fife 


Bow 


Cabin-windows 


Trumpet 



[ 169 ] 

55th EXERCISE. 
Promiscuous Sentences on the 5ith Exercise. 
I left my shoes in the boat. 
Go back and get them, before they are stolen. 
The boat was rowed by six men. 
They rowed the boat very fast. 
That other boat is a skiff. 
A skiff is a flat-bottomed boat. 
I saw a canoe with Indians in it. 
A canoe is made of a log. 
A canoe is sometimes made of bark: 
Canoes are made by Indians. 
Indians do not row their canoes. 
Indians paddle their canoes. 
They have short paddles. 
I saw a man in a sail-boat. 
He sat in the stern of the boat. 
The wind blew hard. 
The boat sailed fast. 
The boat leaned on one side. 
I thought the sail-boat would upset. 
We crossed the river in a horse-boat. 
We saw eight horses. 
They went round all the time. 
We came from Albany in a steam-boat> 
The steam-boat has a hot fire. 
There were wheels on the sides. 
The wheels turned round. 
They made the water foam. 
That vessel is called a sloop. 
A sloop has but one mast. 
A schooner has two masts. 
The sails are hoisted by ropes. 
A brig has two masts. 
A ship has three masts. 
Ships and brigs have yards and square sails; 
Their masts are made of three pieces, 
x 



[ 



170 



1 



(55th EXERCISE.) 

A frigate is a ship with cannon. 

Cannon are called great-guns. 

Ships have large cahins. 

You can walk on a ship's deck. 

I looked out of the cahin-windows. 

The cannon are fired out of the port-holes. 

The cahle is tied to the anchor. 

The cable and anchor hold the ship fast. 



56th EXERCISE. 
COLORS. 



Violet 






Indigo 






Blue 






Green 






Yellow 






Orange 


-. 




Red 





These are beautiful colors. 
I admire them very much* 
I wish I had them. 
Give them to me ? 



[ 171 ] 

(■ r )6th EXERCISE.) 
I cannot give them to you. 
Let me see them. 

Take care and you shall all see them. 
Look ! here they are. count them. 
One, two, three, four, five, six, seven. 
There are seven colors. 
AH these colors are in the rainbow. 
Remember the names of them. 
You must tell me to-morrow. 
You must write them on the slate. 
You must <lo it without the book. 
You must write them from your own head. 
The names must be written in the following order 
Violet, indigo, blue, green, yellow, orange, red. 
Remember what I tell you. 
These seven are the principal colors. 
There are many other colors. 
They are made from the principal eolors. 
They are made by mixing them together. 
These are some of them. 
White, black, brown, scarlet, grey and purple. 



White 




Black 


• 


Brown 




Scarlet 




Grey- 




Purple 





[ 172 ] 

(56tll EXERCISE.) 
The color of that flower is violet. 
The color of indigo is made of a plant. 
That girl has blue eyes. 
The grass is green. 
Her hat is tied with a yclloiv rihhon. 
That is the color of an orange. 
Her cheeks are red. 



Snow is white. 

Soot is black. 

Give me a piece of that brown paper. 

The soldier wore a scarlet coat. 

Your hairs are grey. 

This is a purple ribbon. 



I rode on a grey horse. 

He had on a blue coat. 

Her hat was tied with a blue ribbon. 

The leaves of the trees are green. 

I saw a beautiful green bug. 

She has a pair of yellow shoes. 

That house is painted yellow. 

He lives in a yellow house. 

The man is painting the house. 

He is painting it a red color. 

Your lips are red, and cherries, are red, 

Paper is white, and your skin is white. 

This is white paper, that is hrown paper. 

Give me a sheet of white paper. 

I have a black hat. Leather is black. 

Shoes are made of leather. Shoes are black. 

Here is a sheet of brown paper. 

Wrap it up in brown paper. 

The cat has grey eyes. 

His coat is grey. 

He has a grey coat. 

He wears a grey coat. 



To row 
(o paddle 
to sail 
to die 
to be dead 
to sob 
to sigh 
to sneeze 
to itch 
to seratch 
to kneel 
to pray 
to preach 
to worship 
to forgive 
to announce 
to cure 
to prepare 
to shave 
to drive 

to patch 



to grind 


to deal 


to tan 


to curry 


to bury 


to christen 


to sing 


to bleed 


to plead 


to print 



[ 173 J 

57th EXERCISE. 
A Promiscuous Exercise. 

We voiced the boat across the river. 

The canoe was paddled by four Indians. 

They sailed in a sail-boat. 

He died in the morning. 

He was dead when I returned. 

She sobbed all day. 

She sighs continually. 

I sneeze when I take snuff. 

When it itches I want to scratch. 

She scratched my hand with her nails. 

They always kneel when they pray. 

He prayed at the grave when W — was buried. 

Mr. S. preached this morning. 

We must all worship the Supreme Being. 

You are very kind to forgive my faults. 

Your letter announced his death. 

The Doctor cured him of a fever. 

I must prepare to go to church. 

I must be shaved before i go. 

He drove the carriage against a rock and 

broke it. 
The poor man's coat was patched upon the 

elbows 
The axe was ground on a grind-stone. 
I wish to deal with an honest man. 
The hides were tanned in a tan-vat. 
The hides were taken from the tan-vat and 

curried. 
The living must bury the dead. 
I saw three children christened. 
They sung the whole evening. 
I saw the Doctor bleed him from the arm. 
He pleaded for his life, but they killed him. 
This book was printed in 1821. 



[ 



171 



J 



To pound 


to paint 


to steal 


to ride 


to cultivate 


to reap 


to burn 


to lather 


to contain 


to pave 


to include 


to illuminate 


to brew 


to build 


to load 


to unload 


to cart 


to sew 


to dig 


to trade 


to dye 


to lean 


to upset 


to plough 


to harrow 


to sow 


to plant 


to foam 


to hoist 


to fire 



(57th EXERCISE.) 

The medicine was pounded in a mortar. 

The house was painted last year. 

He stole a watch, and was locked up in jail. 

Let us ride out of town. 

The farmer cultivates the earth. 

The harvest is reaped in July. 

Put your finger in the candle, and it will 

burn yon. 
The barber lathers before he shaves. 
This barrel contains one hundred apples. 
The streets are paved with round stone in 

New-York. 
You are included in the number. 
The houses were illuminated on the news of 

peaee. 
This porter was brewed by Mr. W. 
You cannot build such a house for the same 

money. 
The ship was loaded with cotton. 
The ship was unloaded in three days. 
The cotton was carted into a store. 
She sewed up the hole which I tore in my 

apron. 
His grave was dug in the church-yard. 
He trades to China for tea. 
My gown was dyed black. 
Vessels lean when the wind blows. 
Vessels sometimes upset with the wind. 
The ground is ploughed with a plough. 
The ground is first ploughed & then harrowed. 
The farmer sows the seed upon the ploughed 

ground. 
He planted a tree by the door. 
The horse foamed at the mouth. 
The boat was hoisted on deck. 
He, fired a gun, but 1 could not hear it. 



E 



175 



] 



(57/A EXERCISE.) 

To admire I admire the beauty of the rainbow. 

to remember I remember you forbade him to go in the 

water, 

to mix Oil will not mix with water, 

to laugh I laughed very much at his story, 

to ery The child cried all night with pain, 

to weep The mother weeps for the loss of her child, 

to whip He whipped the dog unmercifully, 

to accompany lie accompanied me to see my father, 

to pitch He pitched a stone into the river, 

to begin I thought he would soon begin. 

to end I feared he would never end. 

to shear I cannot shear the sheep to-day. 

to weave The weaver weaves cloth, 

to cover Charity covers a multitude of sins, 

to deposit My money is deposited in the hank, 

to wear My clothes are worn out. 

to exhort I exhort you to be attentive to your studies. 



58th EXERCISE. 

Slates of Being. 

Life Life is short. Life is uncertain. 

death Death is certain. Death ends all our cares. 

death "We must all die. In the midst of life we are 

in death. 
alive I am alive. I am not dead, 

dead You are not dead. You are alive, 

alive He is alive. He is not dead, 

living My father is living, and my mother is living. 

dying My sister is dying, and my brother is dying. 

well My father and mother are well. 

ill My sister is very ill. 

health My health is not good, 

health I am in a bad state of health. 

sickness We cannot avoid sickness. 



[ 



176 



1 



(58/A EXERCISE.) 

Strong He is a strong man. 
strength My strength is nil gone, 
weak She is a weak woman, 

weakness I have been sick and feel my weakness. 
feeble My sickness makes me very feeble. 

fat That child is very fat. 

lean The child has lost all its fat and become kan 

eating I was eating my dinner when he came, 

drinking You shall see her after drinking tea. 
laughing They were laughing at me. 
crying The child was crying. 

sitting You are sitting. 

standing I am standing. 

walking We were walking in the park yesterday, 
running The boys are running about the streets, 
breathing She is breathing the fresh air. 
sobbing I whipped the boy, and he is sobbing. 
sighing The young woman is sighing. 
seeing Seeing the boys play amuses me. 

hearing I am hearing the music. He lost his hearing by 
sickness. 

I lost my hearing when young. 

She is smelling the rose. 

This is a smelling-bottle. 

The honey is sweet ; I am tasting it. 

The blind man is feeling his way. 

You struck me as if I had no feeling. 

You are touching him. 



smelling 

ft 

tasting 
feeling 
a 

touching 

sneezing 

scratching 

pain 

ache 

sick 

ehill 

fever 

fits 



He took snuff and is sneezing. 

He is scratching me. 

I have a pain in the head. 

My bones ache all over. 

I am very sick, 

I had a chill this afternoon. 

You have a fever. 

Children have fits. 



[ 177 ] 

(5Slk EXERCISE.) 

Convulsions Convulsions are strong fits, 
dull-pain I have a dull-pain in my head, 

heavy-pain I had a heavy-pain in my stomach, 
sharp-pain lie has a sharp-pain in his side, 
darling-pain She has a darting-pain in her face, 
severe-pain He had a severe-pain in the knee, 
head-ache I have a head-ache. My head aches, 
ear-ache I had the ear-ache last night, 

tooth-ache She has the tooth-ache. 
stomach-ache He has the stomach-ache. 
hack-ache He had the hack-ache. 

Are you sick ? Do you feel sick ? 

Are you unwell ? 

Have you any pain ? 

Where is your pain. 



[ 178 ] 

59th EXERCISE. 
A Church and its Parts. 




A church 

a 

te 
tt 

churches 

a 

a 
steeples 



A church is a place to worship God. 

I have been to church to-day. 

I am going to church again. 

I go to church every Sunday. 

There are many churches in New-York. 

Some churches are called meeting-houses, 

Because people meet in them to worship God. 

Some churches have steeples. 

Some churches have no steeples. 



[ 



179 



] 



Bells 

u 
bell 
clocks 

tt 

clock 
aisle 

a 

aisles 
a 

gallery 

galleries 

pulpit 

reading-desk 

pews 

pew 

organ 

bible 

psalm-book 

prayer-book 

preacher 

sermon 

prayers 

chorister 

clerk 

tune 

psalm 

burying-ground 

grave 

graves 

vault 

tomb-stone 

coffin 

pall 

burial 



(59lh EXERCISE.) 

Some churches have bells. 

Some have no bells. 

This church has no bell. 

Some churches have clocks. 

Some have no clocks. 

This church has no clock. 

"We walked through the aisle of the church. 

The aisle is a passage between the pews. 

The aisles were full of people. 

The people stood up in the aisles. 

Some went up stairs to the gallery. 

The galleries were full. 

The preacher slands in the pulpit. 

He reads from the reading-desk. 

People sit in the peivs. 

Eight people can sit in my pew. 

The organ accompanies the singing. 

The bible is the book of life. 

He read the psalm from the psalm-book. 

He read prayers from the prayer-book. 

The preacher preaches from the pulpit. 

I cannot hear the sermon. 

He reads prayers morning and evening. 

The chorister sung poorly. 

He is sometimes called the clerk. 

They sung a delightful tune. 

A psalm was sung before prayers. 

We walked into the burying-ground, 

I saw him put into the grave. 

There were many graves in the burying- 
ground. 

The vault was open. 

His name is on the tomb-stone. 

The coffin was deposited in the vault. 

The coffin was covered with a black palh 
I saw his burial 



[ 180 J 

(. r >9/A EXERCISE.) 
Epitaph His epitaph was short. " Here cndelh all 

earthly joys."' 
pall-bearers All the pall-bearers had scarfs, 
scarf The Doctor had a scarf. 

funeral Many people attended the funeral. 

He died regretted by all his friends. 
Blessed are they who die in the Lord. 



60th EXERCISE. 

MATERIALS OF DRESS. 

Cloth This coat is made of cloth. 

wool Cloth is made of wool. 

" Wool grows on sheep. 

" Sheep are sheared of their wool in summer, 

yarn "Wool is carded and spun into yarn, 

" And then it is wove into cloth, 

clothes Cloth is made into clothes, and dyed of many 

colors, 

linen Shirts are made of linen. 

flax Linen is made of flax. 

thread Flax is spun into thread. 

linen Thread is wove into linen. 

muslin Muslin is made of cotton, 

cotton Cotton grows on a plant, 

cotton-plant It is called the cotton-plant. 

" The cotton-plant has a pod. 

cotton-wool The pod is filled with cotton-wool. 

" Cotton-wool is carded and spun, 

cotton-thread It is then called cotton-thread. 

«« Cotton-thread is wove into muslin, 

calico It is also wove into calico. 

dimity She wore a dimity short-gown, 
flannel Flannel is made of white wool, 

canvass Ships' sails are made of canvass. 

hemp Canvass is made of hemp. 



[ 



181 



J 



Hemp 



woollen-stuff 
velvet 

silk 

tt 

silk-thread 
silk-handkerchief 

gauze 

crape 

lace 

satin 

ribbon 

broad-cloth 

kerseymere 

tt 

nankin 
cord 

corduroy 
leather 
tt 

fur 



(60th EXERCISE.) 

Hemp is the bark of a tall plant. 

Hemp is spun into coarse thread. 

It is then wove into canvass. 

Rnpes are made of hemp. 

She wore a woollen-stuff petticoat. 

His collar is velvet. 

His coat has a velvet collar. 

The lady had a silk gown. 

When you go out, buy me a skein of silk, 

Give me a needle full of silk-thread. 

I lost my silk-handkerchief out of my 

pocket. 
Gauze is very wealv and thin. 
He had black crape on his hat. 
This lace is very fine. 
Satin is a beautiful kind of silk. 
The ribbon is not wide enough. 
The broad-cloth is cheap at four dollars 

a yard. 
This kerseymere is rotten. 
That kerseymere is strong. 
Nankin is worn in summer. 
The cord is drawn round her waist. 
He has corduroy trowsers. 
Boots and shoes are made of leather. 
These shoes are made of coarse leather. 
Her muff and tippet are made of fine fur. 



6 1st EXERCISE. 

Employments and Trades. 
Clergyman The clergyman worships God. 

*' He prays for us all. 

" He exhorts us to be good. 

" He prays to God to forgive our sins. 

Preacher He is called a preacher. 



I 



182 



I 



Preacher 



Physician 
Doctor 



Surgeon 
a 

Apothecary 

Lawyer 

Printer 

Painter 
a 

Portrait-painter 

Musician 

Barber 



Butcher 
Baker 

« 
a 
tc 



Brewer 

Mason 

Carpenter 

Carman 

Tinker 

Hatter 



(615/ EXERCISE.) 
He preaches sermons from the pulpit. 
He announces salvation through Jesus 

Christ. 
The physician cures the sick. 
He is called a Doctor. 
The Doctor feels the pulse. 
The Doctor prescribes medicines for the 

sick, and 
The sick take medicines to cure them. 
The surgeon cures wounds. 
He cuts off legs and arms. 
The apothecary prepares medicines. 
The lawyer pleads for justice. 
The printer prints books in a printing- 
press. 
The painter paints houses. 
He puts the paint on with a brush. 
The portrait-painter takes likenesses. 
The musician teaches music. 
The barber cuts hair. 
The barber shaved me. 
I was shaved by the barber. 
The butcher sells meat. 
The baker makes bread. 
He bakes it in an oven. 
Bread is made of flour. 
The flour is mixed with water. 
It is then kneaded into dough. 
The dough is made into loaves. 
The loaves are baked in an oven. 
Beer and porter are made by the brewer. 
The mason builds bouses of brick. 
The carpenter builds houses of wood. 
The carman drives a horse and cart. 
The tinker makes and mends kettles. 
Hats are made by the hatter. 



[ 183 ] 

(61st EXERCISE.) 

Confectioner Sweetmeats are made by the confectioner, 

" The confectioner sells sweetmeats and sugar- 
plums. 

Currier The currier dresses leather. 

M Leather is made of cow-hides. 

Cutler The cutler grinds knives. 

Milliner The milliner makes hats for ladies. 

Seamstress The seamstress sews with a needle and thread. 

Tailoress A tailoress is a female tailor. 

Groeer We bought some tea of the grocer. 

"Weaver Let us go to the weaver. 

*' He has not wove the cloth. 

Gardener The gardener knows his duty. 

<« He keeps our garden in fine order. 

Laborer The laborer carries the hod. 

" He carries bricks and mortar in the hod. 

Bookseller The bookseller sells books. 

Tobacconist Snuff is made by the tobacconist. 

" The tobacconist deals in tobacco and snuff. 

" Tobacco is ground into snuff. 

Merchant The merchant sends ships to sea. 

" He trades to distant countries. 

Dyer My shawl was dyed black by the dyer. 

Tanner The tanner tans cow-hides. 

« Cow-hides are tanned with oak-bark. 

" They are then eurried and made into leather. 

Tailor Men's clothes are made by tailors. 

Saddle I rode a horse without a saddle. 

Saddler Saddles are made by a saddler. 

Potter The potter makes pots and jugs of clay. 

" He then bakes them hard in an oven. 

Stationer The stationer deals in paper. 

Turner The legs of the table were turned in a lathe. 

by a turner. 

Farmer Thefai-mer cultivates the earth. 

« He raises food for man and beast. 



t 184 J 



Farmer 



Planter 
Cooper 



Brick-maker 



Coach-maker 

it 

Rope-maker 

it 

Mantua-maker 



Cabinet-maker 
Watch-maker 



Brush-maker 

n 

Comb-maker 
a 

a 

a 

Pin-maker 
tt 

Shoe-maker 
Gold-smith 
Copper-smith 
Silver-smith 



(61 St EXERCISE.) 
He ploughs, and sows and harrows the 

ground. 
He reaps the increase which God bestows. 
The planter also cultivates the earth. 
This pail was made by a cooper. 
The cooper made this pail. 
The cooper makes tubs, and kegs & barrels. 
The brick-maker makes bricks. 
He makes bricks of clay. 
He makes them in a mould which is square. 
He then dries them in the sun. 
The bricks are then burned in the fire until 

they are hard. 
The coach-maker has a coach to sell. 
He made it, and it is very handsome. 
This rope came from the rope-maker. 
He made it of hemp. 
I will send for the mantua-maker. 
I want her to make me a new gown. 
The mantua-maker makes ladies' clothes. 
The cabinet-maker made the side-board. 
I sent my watch to the watch-maker. 
My watch was out of order, & he repaired it. 
I let it fall on the floor and stopped it. 
Brushes are made by the brush-maker. 
He makes them of hog's bristles. 
The comb-maker makes combs. 
He makes fine combs of ivory, and 
Coarse combs of cow's horns. 
Ladies' combs, he makes of tortoise-shell. 
Pins are made by the pin-maker. 
He makes pins of brass-wire. 
Shoes are made by the shoe-maker. 
The gold-smith works in gold. 
The copper-smith works in copper. 
The silver-smith works in silver. 



[ 



185' 



3 



Black-smith 
u 

Wheelwright 
Ship-wright 
tt 

Tallow-chandler 



Bell-founder 

Type-founder 

Book-hinder 

Boat-builder 

Lamp-lighter 

Dancing-master 

School-master 

School-madam 

Teacher 



(61st EXERCISE.) 

The black-smith works in iron. 

He makes iron tools. 

Wheels are made by the wheel-wright. 

The ship-wright huilds ships. 

He also repairs ships and other vessels. 

The tallow-chandler makes candles. 

He makes candles of tallow. 

Tallow is the fat of cows, and oxen and 

sheep. 
Bells are made by the hell-founder. 
Types are made by the type-founder. 
Books are bound by the hook-binder. 
The boat-builder makes boats. 
The lamps are lighted by the lamp-lighter. 
The dancing-master learned me to dance. 
A teacher is sometimes called a school- 
master. 
If the teacher is a woman, she is called a 

school-madam. 
My teacher taught me to distinguish good 
from evil. 



62d EXERCISE. 



Lancet 

turnkey 

mortar 

pestle- 

types 



printing-press 



Tools and Instruments. 

The Doctor bleeds with a lancet. 

The Surgeon draws teeth with a turnkey. 

Medicines are pounded in a mortar. 

They are pounded with a pestle. 

Books are printed with types. 

Types are made of metal. 

Each type makes a letter. 

Types are put togelher and make words. 

The types are prepared and put into a 

printing-press. 
The printer puts ink upon the types. 



c 



180 



] 



Printing-press 
tt 

tt 

brush 
paint-brush 



razor 

tt 
a 

Shaving-brush 
shaving-box 
scissors 
oven 
tt 

lathe 

trowel 

chisel 



mallet 
auger 
girablet 
plane 
compasses 
square 
grind-stone 
needle 
thimble 
tt 

bodkin 

loom 

shuttle 

spade 

shovel 

pick-axe 



(62c? EXERCISE.) 
The paper is put on the printing-press. 
The paper is then pressed upon the types. 
The paper receives the impression. 
Paint is put on houses with a brush. 
It is called a paint-brush. 
The paint-brush is made of hog's bristles. 
The paint-brush is used by painters. 
I was shaved by the barber with a ra*or. 
He cut my face with the razor* 
He lathered my face with soap-suds. 
He rubbed it on with a shaving-brush. 
He held the shaving-box in his hand. 
He cut my hair with the scissors. 
Bread is baked in an oven. 
The oven is heated with fire. 
Wood is turned in a lathe. 
The trowel is used by masons. 
Carpenters use the chisel. 
They mortice holes in wood with a chisel. 
They strike the mallet on the chisel. 
The mallet is a wooden hammer. 
Holes are bored in wood with an auger. 
Small holes are bored with a gimblet. 
Boards are made smooth with a plane. 
I made a circle with the compasses. 
The carpenters use the square & compasses. 
Tools are sharpened upon a grind-stone. 
Ladies work with a needle. 
They put a thimble on the finger. 
It is put on the middle-finger. 
The ladies use a bodkin. 
Cloth is wove in a loom. 
The shuttle is thrown by the weaver. 
Holes are dug with a spade. 
You can dig in the sand with a shovel. 
Hard ground is loosened with a pick-axe. 



[ 187 ] 

(62d EXERCISE.) 
Hoc Corn is planted with a hoe. 

ra ke The gardener rakes the garden with a rake. 

plough Horses and oxen draw the plough 

harrow The ground is harrowed with a harrow. 

" The harrow is dragged over the ploughed 

ground, 
sickle The sickle is used to reap the grain, 

waggon The waggon is loaded with hay. 

pitch-fork The hay is put on the waggon with a pitch- 

fork. 
last Shoes are made upon a last. 

" The last is made of wood. 

" The last is shaped like the foot, 

cleaver The butcher cuts his meat with a cleaver. 

cooper's-adz The cooper' s-adz, is crooked, 
sledge A black-smith's sledge is heavy. 



63d EXERCISE. 

A City and its Parts. 

City JL city contains many houses, 

people There are many people in a city, 

inhabitants The people are called the inhabitants. 

city We are in the city of New- York. 

" We live in the city of New- York, 

school The school for the Deaf and Dumb is in 

Chamber-street, 
asylum The asylum for the Deaf and Dumb is in 

Chatham-street, 
street I live at No. 72 Chatham street. 

New- York New-Fork is a large city. 

" It contains 120,000 inhabitants, 

houses The houses are built close together. 

" Some are brick houses, and some are wooden 

houses. 
streets There are streets between the houses. 



[ 



188 



I 



(63c? EXERCISE.) 
Pavements The pavements arc laid with stone, 

side-walks The side-walks are paved with bricks. 

" Some are paved with flat stone, 

corner He turned the corner into the next street, 

capital The capital is the principal city of a state, 

city-hall The city -hall in New- York is a large stone 

building, 
courts The courfs of justice are held in it. 

judges The judges sit upon the bench, 

jury The jury hear the witnesses, 

witnesses The ivilnesscs give evidence, 

law The judges explain the law. 

lawyers The lawyers plead for the parties, 

evidence The jury retire and consult on the evidence, 

verdict The jury bring in & verdict. 

« The verdict decides upon the guilt of the 

prisoner. 
« The verdict is made upon the evidence of 

witnesses. 
If the prisoner is guilty he is put in prison. 
There are four prisons in New-York. 
If a man owes you and will not pay, he is 

put in gaol. 
The gaol is called the debtor' s-prison. 
It is sometimes called the jail. 
If a man owes you he is your debtor. 
If a person steals he is put in bridewell. 
tt He is kept there till he has a trial. 

« If the jury find him not guilty he is 

acquitted. 
« He is then set at liberty, 

penitentiary If he is found guilty, he is sent to the peni- 

tentiary, or the state-prison. 
« He is put in the penitentiary for stealing 

a small sum. 
state-prison He is sent to the state-prison for stealing 

a large sum. 



prison, prisoner 

prisons 

gaol 

debtor's-prison 

jail 

debtor 

bridewell 



[ 



189 



1 



State-prison 

churches 
banks 

alms-house 
u 



soup-house 
the poor 

hospital 



university 

colleges 
academies 

schools 
free schools 
school 

asylum 



institution 



(63rf EXERCISE.) 
The prisoners in the penitentiary and State* 

prison, are made to work. 
There are many churches in New- York. 
There are ten banks in the city of New-York. 
Money is kept in the hanks. 
The poor inhabitants are supported in the, 

alms-house. 
It is sometimes called the poor-house. 
The new alms-house is a large building. 
There are many poor people in the almsr 

house. 
The museum is in a part of the old alms-house. 
The school for the Deaf and Dumb is in a 

part of the old alms-house. 
Soup is made in the soup-house. 
It is given to the poor, and those who are in 

gaol. 
The sick are sent to the hospital. 
Sick people who cannot pay, go to the 

hospital. 
The physicians attend and give medicines 

without pay. 
Their services are given gratis. 
The university includes all the colleges and 

academies in the state. 
There are four colleges in this state. 
There are many academies in the state of 

New-York. 
Common schools are numerous. 
There are a number offree schools in this city. 
The Deaf and Dumb are taught in this school. 
This is the school for the Deaf and Dumb. 
The boarding-house is called the asylum for 

the Deaf and Dumb. 
The school & asylum are called the New-York 
Institution for instructing the Deaf & Dumb. 



I 



190 



] 



Institution 



market 

<t 

markets 

tavern 

wharf 



wharves 



store 
theatre 
museum 
tt 

academy of arts 

a 

statues 
hotel 
city- hotel 
coffee-house 



(63(1 EXERCISE.) 

There is an institution for the Deaf and 

Dumb, in Hartford. 
There is another in Philadelphia. 
Meat, vegetables and fruits are sold in 

market. 
Food of all kinds is sold in market. 
There are ten markets in New-York. 
A tavern is a common boarding-house. 
Jl wharf is made in the river. 
The parts of a wharf are connected by 

bridges. 
There are many wharves in New-York. 
Ships lay at the wharves. 
Ships lay along side of the wharves. 
The store is near the wharf. 
The theatre was illuminated. 
I have been in the museum. 
I saw a great many things in the museum. 
We saw pictures in the academy of arts. 
We saw men and women made of stone. 
These are called statues. 
Jl hotel is a genteel boarding-house. 
He puts up at the city-hotel. 
Merchants meet at the coffee-house. 



64th EXERCISE. 

Verbs heretofore introduced, conjugated in the Present 
and Imperfect Tenses, and Perfect Participle. 

1. Regular Verbs. 



To live 
to breathe 
to suck 
to wash 



Pres. Tense. 
Live 
breathe 
suck 
wash 



Imperf. Tense. 
Lived 
breathed 
sucked 
washed 



Perf. or Past Part. 
Lived 
breathed 
sucked 
washed 



[ 191 ] 





(64th 


EXERCISE.) 






Pres. Tense. 


Imperf. Tense. 


Per/, or Past Part 


To jump 


Jump 


Jumped 


Jumped 


to taste 


taste 


tasted 


tasted 


to swallow 


swallow 


swallowed 


swallowed 


to love 


love 


loved 


loved 


to hate 


hate 


hated 


hated 


to hop 


hop 


hopped 


hopped 


to walk 


walk 


walked 


walked 


to dress 


dress 


dressed 


dressed 


to undress 


undress 


undressed 


undressed 


to play 


play 


played 


played 


to dine 


dine 


dined 


dined 


to soar 


soar 


soared 


soared 


to pray 


pray 


prayed 


prayed 


to brush 


brush 


brushed 


brushed 


to peep 


peep 


peeped 


peeped 


to mind 


mind 


minded 


minded 


to talk 


talk 


talked 


talked 


to learn 


learn 


learned 


learned 


to laugh 


laugh 


laughed 


laughed 


to fear 


fear 


feared 


feared 


to smile 


smile 


smiled 


smiled 


to sail 


sail 


sailed 


sailed 


to dive 


dive 


dived 


dived 


to dance 


dance 


danced 


danced 


to kill 


kill 


killed 


killed 


to clean 


clean 


cleaned 


cleaned 


to roast 


roast 


roasted 


roasted 


to boil 


boil 


boiled 


boiled 


to fry 


fry 


fried 


fried 


to broil 


broil 


broiled 


broiled 


to stew 


stew 


stewed 


stewed 


to turn 


turn 


turned 


turned 


to open 


open 


opened 


opened 


to bake 


bake 


baked 


baked 


to pave 


pave 


paved 


paved 



192 





(64//t 


EXERCISE.) 






Pres. Tense. 


tmperf. Tense. 


Perf. or Past Purl 


To mend 


Mend 


Mended 


Mended 


to erack 


crack 


cracked 


cracked 


to dirty 


dirty 


dirtied 


dirtied 


to wash 


wash 


washed 


Mashed 


to cool 


cool 


cooled 


cooled 


to refresh 


refresh 


refreshed 


refreshed 


to absorb 


absorb 


absorbed 


absorbed 


to congeal 


congeal 


congealed 


congealed 


to iron 


iron 


ironed 


ironed 


to hash 


hash 


hashed 


hashed 


to carve 


carve 


carved 


carved 


to knead 


knead 


kneaded 


kneaded 


to bubble 


bubble 


bubbled 


bubbled 


to correct 


correct 


corrected 


corrected 


to convert 


convert 


converted 


converted 


to rinse 


rinse 


rinsed 


rinsed 


to knock 


knock 


knocked 


knocked 


to lock 


lock 


locked 


locked 


to bolt 


bolt 


bolted 


bolted 


to furnish 


furnish 


furnished 


furnished 


to light 


light 


lighted 


lighted 


to snuff 


snuff 


snuffed 


snuffed 


to fold 


fold 


folded 


folded 


to erase 


erase 


erased 


erased 


to wipe 


wipe 


wiped 


wiped 


to rub 


rub 


rubbed 


rubbed 


to wet 


wet 


wetted 


wetted 


to seal 


seal 


sealed 


sealed 


to direct 


direct 


directed 


directed 


to row 


row 


rowed 


rowed 


to paddle 


paddle 


paddled 


paddled 


to sob 


sob 


sobbed 


sobbed 


to sigh 


sigh 


sighed 


sighed 


to sneeze 


sneeze 


sneezed 


sneezed 


to iteh 


itch 


itched 


itched 



[ 



193 



J 



To scratch 
to kneel 
to preach 
to worship 
to announce 
to cure 
to prepare 
to patch 
to tan 
to curry 
to bury 
to christen 
to print 
to pound 
to paint 
to cultivate 
to reap 
to lather 
to contain 
to include 
to illuminate 
to brew 
to load 
to unload 
to cart 
to trade 
to dye 
to lean 
to plough 
to harrow 
to plant 
to cross 
to foam 
to hoist 
to fire 



(64th 

Pres. Tense. 
Scratch 
kneel 
preach 
worship 
announce 
cure 
prepare 
patch 
tan 
curry 
bury 
christen 
print 
pound 
paint 
cultivate 
reap 
lather 
contain 
include 
illuminate 
brew 
load 
unload 
cart 
trade 
dye 
lean 
plough 
harrow 
plant 
cross 
foam 
hoist 
fire 



EXERCISE.) 
Imperf. Tense. 
Scratched 
kneeled 
preached 
worshipped 
announced 
cured 
prepared 
patched 
tanned 
curried 
buried 
christened 
printed 
pounded 
painted 
cultivated 
reaped 
lathered 
contained 
included 
illuminated 
brewed 
loaded 
unloaded 
carted 
traded 
dyed 
leaned 
ploughed 
harrowed 
planted 
crossed 
foamed 
hoisted 
fired 
A a 



Per/, or Past Part. 
Scratched 
kneeled 
preached 
worshipped 
announced 
cured 
prepared 
patched 
tanned 
curried 
buried 
ehristened 
printed 
pounded 
painted 
cultivated 
reaped 
lathered 
contained 
included 
illuminated 
brewed 
loaded 
unloaded 
carted 
traded 
dyed 
leaned 
ploughed 
harrowed 
planted 
crossed 
foamed 
hoi-led 
fired 



[ 



194 



] 



To admire 
to remember 
to mix 
to cry 
to whip 



Pres. Tense. 
Admire 
remember 
mix 
cry 
whip 



to accompany accompany 

to pitch pitch 

to end end 

to shear shear 

to tie tie 

to cover cover 

to deposit deposit 

to connect connect 

to unite unite 



To be 
to have 
to sleep 
to wake 
to eat 
to drink 
to see 
to get 
to hear 
to smell 
to lie 
to sit 
to go 
to come 
to run 
to chew 
to speak 
to take 
to kiss 
to send 



(64/A EXERCISE.) 

Imperf. Tense. 
Admired 
remembered 
mixed 
cried 
whipped 
accompanied 
pitched 
ended 
sheared 
tied 

covered 
deposited 
connected 
united 



2. Irregular Verbs. 



Am 

have 

sleep 

wake 

eat 

drink 

see 

get 

hear 

smell 

lie 

sit 

g° 
come 

run 

chew 

speak 

take 

kiss 

send 



Was 

had 

slept 

woke 

ate 

drank 

saw 

got 

heard , 

smelled 

lay 

sat 

went 

came 

ran 

chewed 

spoke 

took 

kissed 

sent 



Per/, or Past Part. 
Admired 
remembered 
mixed 
cried 
whipped 
accompanied 
pitched 
ended 
sheared 
tied 

covered 
deposited 
connected 
united 

Been 

had 

slept 

waked 

eaten 

drunk 

seen 

got 

heard 

smelt 

lain 

sat 

gone 

come 

run 

chewn 

spoken 

taken 

kist 

sent 



195 



3 



(64^ 



To fall 
to say 
to tell 
to buy 
to ring 
to sell 
to spit 
to flow 
to spin 
to sing 
to blow 
to swim 
to drive 
to speak 
to ride 
to bring 
to beat 
to hold 
to burn 
to shine 
to fly 
to dig 
to sting 
to make 
to wear 
to tear 
to sow 
to spell 
to write 
to overflow 
to sweep 
to teach 
to forgive 
to die 
to shave 



Pres. Tense. 
Fall 
say 
tell 
buy ' 
ring 
sell 
spit 
flow 
spin 
sing 
blow 
swim 
drive 
speak 
ride 
bring 
beat 
hold 
burn 
shine 

fly 

dig 

sting 

make 

wear 

tear 

sow 

spell 

write 

overflow 

sweep 

teach 

forgive 

die 

shave 



EXERCISE.) 

Imperf. Tense, 
Fell 
said 
told 
bought 
rang 
sold 
spat 
flowed 
span 
sang 
blowed 
swam 
drove 
spoke 
rode 
brought 
beat 
held 
burned 
shined 
flew 
dug 
stung 
made 
wore 
tore 
sowed 
spelled 
wrote 
overflowed 
sweeped 
taught 
forgave 
died 
shaved 



Per/, or Past Part. 
Fallen 
said 
told 
bought 
rung 
sold 
spitten 
flown 
spun 
sung 
blown 
swum 
driven 
spoken 
ridden 
brung 
beaten 
holden 
burnt 
shone 
flown 
digged 
stung 
made 
worn 
torn 
sown 
spelt 
written 
overflown 
swept 
taught 
forgiven 
dead 
shaven 



[ 



196 



J 



To grind 
to deal 
to bleed 
to plead 
to steal 
to burn 
to build 
to upset 
to weep 
to think 
to wind 



(64<A 

Pres. Tense. 
Grind 
deal 
bleed 
plead 
steal 
burn 
build 
upset 
weep 
think 
wind 



EXERCISE.) 
Imperf. Tense. 

Ground 

dcalcd 

bled 

pleaded 

stole 

burned 

built 

upsot 

wecped 

thought 

wound 



Per/, or Past Part. 
Ground 
dealt 
bled 
pled 
stolen 
burnt 
built 
upsot 
wept 
thought 
wound 



3. Verbs of no variation in the present tense, im- 
perfect TENSE, OR PAST PARTICIPLE. 



To cut 
to shut 
to put 
to burst 
to cast 
to cost 
to hit 
to hurt 
to read 
to set 
to let 
to shed 
to slit 
to split 
to spread 
to thrust 



To rain 
to snow 
to hail 



Cut 

shut 

put 

burst 

cast 

cost 

hit 

hurt 

read 

set 

let 

shed 

slit 

split 

spread 

thrust 



Cut 

shut 

put 

burst 

cast 

cost 

hit 

hurt 

read 

set 

let 

shed 

slit 

split 

spread 

thrust 



4. Impersonal Verbs. 



It rains 
it snows 
it hails 



It rained 
it snowed 
it hailed 



Cut 

shut 

put 

burst 

cast 

cost 

hit 

hurt 

read 

set 

let 

shed 

slit 

split 

spread 

thrust 



It has rained 
it has snowed 
it has hailed 



To freeze 
to appear 
to seem 
to happen 
to thunder 
to lighten 
to thaw 
to blow 
to dry 
to be hot 
to be cold 



[ 
(Mth 

Pres. Tense. 
It freezes 
it appears 
it seems 
it happens 
it thunders 
it lightens 
it thaws 
it blows 
it dries 
it is hot 
it is cold 



197 



J 



EXERCISE.) 

Imp erf. Tense. 
It froze 
it appeared 
it seemed 
it happened 
it thundered 
it lightened 
it thawed 
it blew 
it dried 
it was hot 
it was cold 



Per/, or Past Part. 
It has frozen 
t has appeared, 
t hath seemed 
t has happened 
t has thundered 
t has lightened 
t has thawed 
t has blown 
t has dried 
t has been hot 
t has been cold 



To row 


to paddle 


to sail 


to live 


ft 


a 


a 


to die 


to live 


to reform 


to shun 


to be dead 


M 


ft 


it 


to sob 


to think 


to relieve 



65th EXERCISE. 

Verbs in the Infinitive Mood. 

1. Present Tense. 

It is hard to row a boat. 

It is not hard work to paddle a canoe. 

The ship is loaded and ready to sail. 

It is difficult to live with him. 

It is not difficult to live with her. 

It is easy to live with her. 

It is not easy to live with him. 

He is too wicked to die. 

She is too good to live. 

It is impossible to reform him. 

It is best to shun bad men. 

He appears to be dead. 

He appears not to be dead. 

He does not appear to be dead. 

He appears to be not dead. 

"When he was whipped, he wept, and began 

to sob. 
She sighs to think of her mother's death. 
He took snuff to relieve his head-ache. 



To scratch 
to be scratched 
to scratch 
to be scratched 
to pray 
to preach 
to worship 
to sing 
to worship 



to bury 
to christen 
to read 
to bleed 
tt 

to be bled 
to tie 
to plead 
to print 
to pound 
tt 

to paint 
to shave 
to bake 
to steal 
to ride 

tt 

a 

a 

tt 
to be wicked 
to forgive 
tt 

to cure 

to announce 



[ ™* J 

(65/A EXERCISE.) 

It is impossible for him to scratch. 

My back itches ; 1 wish it to be scratched. 

I do not wish the cat to scratch inc. 

1 do not wish to he scratched by the cat. 

I saw him kneel to pray. 

lie went to the alms-house to preach. 

It is good to worship God in prayer. 

It is proper to sing in the worship of God. 

Some people delight to ivorship God in 

silence. 
I feel a strong desire to worship God. 
A grave-yard is a place to bury the dead. 
lie wishes you to christen the children. 
You must learn to read. 
The Doctor took out his lancet to bleed me. 
I was afraid and would not be bled. 
I was afraid to be bled. 
They held me to tic a string around my arm. 
A lawyer requires practice to plead well. 
The printer will learn us to print. 
These roots are difficult to pound. 
These leaves are easy to pound. 
He promised to paint my house. 
The barber sent his boy to shave me. 
I have too much work to bake to-day. 
It is wicked to steal. 
He is too sick to ride. 
He is sick and unable to ride. 
He is unable to ride in a carriage. 
It is impossible for him to ride in a waggon. 
I am not used to ride on horse-back. 
You are inclined to be wicked. 
Pray to God to forgive your sins. 
I am willing to forgive you. 
It is impossible to cure him. 
It it agreeable to announce good news. 



To prepare 


to die 


to shave 


n 


to hake 


to knead 


to make 


to drive 



to mend 
to patch 
to grind 
to deal 
to tan 
to curry 
to cultivate 

to reap 
to burn 
to contain 
to pave 
to build 
to load 
to unload 
to cart 
to sew 
to dig 
to dye 
to blow 
to lean 
to upset 
to plough 



[ 199 ] 

(65th EXERCISE.) 
It is necessary for all to prepare for death. 
We must all prepare to die. 
This razor is too dull to shave. 
That razor is not sharp enough to share. 
It is too late to hake bread. 
I will show you how to knead bread. 
I will show you how to make bread. 
I thought it was difficult to drive a horse. 
It is not difficult to drive a gentle horse. 
It is easy to drive a gentle horse. 
It is difficult to drive an unruly horse. 
It is difficult to mend your coat. 
It is not easy to patch your coat. 
He is unwilling to grind the axe. 
He is willing to deal with you. 
It will require four months to tan these hides. 
1 wish you to eurry the hides. 
It is the business of the farmer to cultivate 

the earth. 
The sickle is employed to reap the harvest. 
He tried to burn my hand upon the stove. 
The box is too small to contain all the books. 
They were employed to pave the yard. 
He must have money to build a house. 
They began to load the ship. 
They ceased to unload the ship. 
Get a carman to cart the wood. 
Her finger is sore, and she is unable to sew. 
Get a spade to dig a hole in the ground. 
I wish you to dye my shawl red. 
The wind began to blow. 
The boat began to lean. 
The wind caused the boat to upset. 
We must begin to plough to-morrow. 
Yoke the oxen to plough that field. 



£ 200 J 

[65tfl EXERCISE.) 

To harrow Take the horses to harrow tins field. 

to sow Make haste with your ploughing ; it is 

time to sow. 
to plant It is too early to plant corn, 

to cross The wind blows too hard to cross the river, 

to fire He took aim to fire the gun. 

to forget He is apt to forget. 

to remember He is not apt to remember. 

to learn He is very apt to learn. 

to laugh I was forced to laugh at his folly, 

to cry He began to cry like a child, 

to weep The death of her sister caused her to weep. 

to whip He is a bad boy, and I was obliged to 

whip him. 

to end It is time to end your play, 

to begin It is time to begin your lesson, 

to shear He began to shear the sheep, 

to be sheared He has twenty sheep to be sheared. 

to deposit I went to the bank to deposit my money, 

to be deposited I had one hundred dollars to be deposited. 

to wear I am unable to wear my coat, 

to be worn It is dirty and not fit to be worn. 

to remember I exhort you to remember your Creator in 

the days of your youth. 



Verbs in the hifinitive Mood. 
2. Perfect Tense. 

To have read It is impossible to have read the book 

through, 
to have been read The book ought to have been read through, 
to have built He ought not to have built so large a 

house, 
to have been built It is known to have been built by contract, 
to have burnt He wished to have burnt me. 



[ 201 ] 

(65th EXERCISE.) 

To have been burnt A horse was said to have been burnt 

in the fire, 
to have bled The Doctor was desirous to have 

bled him. 
to have been bled It was my wish to hare been bled. 

to have united It was my wish to have united 

them, 
to have been united They were to have been united last 

week, 
to have connected It is proper to have connected 

them, 
to have been connected They ought to have been connected 

long ago. 
to have admired To have admired her would make 

her vain, 
to have been admired She ought not to have been admired. 
to have corrected You ought to have corrected my 

letter, 
to have been corrected My letter ought to have been cor- 
rected. 
to have swallowed To have swallowed the pin might 

have killed him. 
to have been swallowed It is impossible for the bone to have 

been swallowed. 
to have washed You ought to have washed him in 

the river, 
to have been washed He ought to have been washed in 

the river, 
to have killed He was to have killed the ox yes- 

terday, 
to have been killed The ox was to have been killed 

yesterday, 
to have sealed I ought to have sealed my letter, 

to have been sealed My letter ought to have been seakd. 



n }\ 



[ 



202 



I 



66th EXERCISE. 
Words explained by Contrast or Opposition. 





1. 


Substantives. 




Life 


Death 


Dirtiness 


Cleanness 


health 


sickness 


sleepiness 


wakefulness 


love 


hatred 


agreement 


disagreement 


j°y 


grief 


management 


mismanagement 


loss 


gain 


understanding 


misunderstanding 


pleasure 


pain 


behavior 


misbehavior 


buyer 


seller 


pleasure 


displeasure 


warinth 


coldness 


belief 


unbelief 


mixture 


separation 


belief 


disbelief 




2. 


Adjectives. 




Big 


Little 


Smooth 


Rough 


large 


small 


pale 


ruddy 


good 


bad 


weak 


strong 


youug 


old 


tender 


tough 


new 


old 


fair 


foul 


fresh 


stale 


white 


black 


fresh 


salt 


clean 


dirty 


fat 


lean 


thin 


thick 


tall 


short 


hot 


cold 


long 


short 


wild 


tame 


fine 


coarse 


cheap 


dear 


sour 


sweet 


ugty 


handsome 


ripe 


unripe 


tight 


loose 


rich 


poor 


dead 


alive 


wet 


dry 


heavy 


light 


low 


high 


dull 


sharp 


hard 


soft 


careful 
3. Verbs. 


eareless 




Active. 


Passive. 


To live 


To die 


To be alive To be dead 


to love 


to hate 


to be loved to be hated 


to clean 


to dirty 


to be clean to be dirty 





[ 


203 ] 




(66//i 


EXERCISE.) 


To warm 


To cool 


To be warm To be cool 


to wound 


to heal 


to be wounded to he healed 


to sicken 


to cure 


to be sick to be cured 


to hoist 


to lower 


to be hoisted to be lowered 


to mix 


to separate 


to be mixed to be separated 


to weep 




to be merry 


to laugh 


to cry 




to sleep 


to wake 


to be asleep to be awake 


to sit 


to stand 


to be sitting to be standing 


to come 


to go 


to be coming to be going 


to go 


to return 


to be gone to be returned 


to buy 


to sell 


to be bought to be sold 


to shut 


to open 


to he shut to be opened 




4. Opposition by Prefixes. 


To fold 


To unfold 


To be folded 
to be unfolded 


to load 


to unload 


to be loaded 
to be unloaded 


to cross 


to recross 


to be crossed 
to be recrossed 


to cover 


to uncover 


to be covered 
to be uncovered 


to lose 


to gain 


to be lost 
to be gained 


to agree 


to disagree 


to be agreed 
to be disagreed 


to approve 


to disapprove to be approved 






to be disapproved 


to bid 


to forbid 


to be bid 
to be forbid 


to manage 


to mismanage to be managed 






to be mismanaged 


to understand to misunderstand to be understood 






to be misunderstood 


to lock 


to unlock 


to be locked 
to be unlocked 



i. 204 J 



(66th EXERCISE.) 

To tie To untie To be lied 

to do to undo to be done 

to uplift to depress to be uplifted 

to include to exclude to be included 

to admit to exclude to be admitted 

to proceed to digress to be proceeded 

to please to displease to be pleased 

to behave to misbehave 

to affirm to contradict to be affirmed 

to refuse to consent to be refused 

to give to receive to be given 

to take to restore to be taken 

to give to take to be given 

to engage to disengage to be engaged 



To be untied 
to be undone 
to be depressed 
to be excluded 
to be excluded 
to be digressed 
to be displeased 

to be contradicted 

to be received 
to be restored 
to be taken 
to be disengaged 



67th EXERCISE. 
Derivation. 



From 
To live 
to suck 
to wash 
to taste 
to love 
to hate 
« 

to walk 

to dress 

a 

to play 
to dine 
to boil 
to turn 
to open 



Comes 
Liver 
sucker 
washer 
taster 
lover 
hater and 
hatred 
walker 
dresser 
dressing 
player 
dinner 
boiler 
turner 
opening 
openness 



From 
To pray 
to brush 
to talk 
to learn 
u 

to laugh 
u 

to dive 

to dance 

to kill 

to clean 

to roast 

to paint 
a 

to cultivate 



Comes 
Prayer 
brusher 
talker 
learner 
learning 
laugher 
laughter 
diver 
dancer 
killer 
cleanness 
roaster 
painter 
painting 
eultivater 
cultivation 



•4 



L 



20< 



J 



From 

To bake 

to pave 

a 

to wash 
to cool 
to refresh 
to absorb 
to congeal 
to carve 
to correct 
to knock 
to lock 

to furnish 
it 

to light 
to snuff 

to eraze 
tt 

to seal 
to direct 
to preach 
to worship 
to prepare 
to tan 
to curry 
to bury 
to print 
tt 

to sell 
to spit 
to spin 
to sing 
to swim 
to drive 
to ride 
«o hold 



(67th 

Comes 
Raker 
paver 
pavement 
washer 
cooler 
refresbment 
absorption 
congelation 
carver 
corrector 
knocker 
locket 
furnisher 
furniture 
lighter 
snuffer 
erasure 
erasement 
sealer 
director 
preacher 
worshipper 
preparation 
tanner 
currier 
burial 
printer 
printing 
seller 
spitter 
spinner 
singer 
swimmer 
driver 
rider 
holder 



exercise.) 

From 
To reap 
to illuminate 
to brew 
to trade 
to dye 
to plant 
to admire 
to remember 
to mix 
to cry 
to shear 
to weave 
to cover 
to deposit 

it 

to grind 
to deal 
to plead 
to sleep 
to drink 
to bear 
u 

to smell 

tt 

to lie 
to run 
to speak 
to buy 
to sting 
to make 
to spell 
to write 
to sweep 
to teach 
to forgive 
to build 



Comes 
Reaper 
illumination 
brewer 
trader 
dyer 
planter 
admirer 
remembrance 
mixture 
cryer 
shearer 
weaver 
covering 
deposition 
depository 
grinder 
dealer 
pleader 
sleeper 
drinker 
hearer 
bearing 
smeller 
smelling 
lier 
runner 
speaker 
buyer 
stinger 
maker 
speller 
w riter 
sweeper 
teacher 
forgiveness 
builder 



[ 206 ] 

68th EXERCISE. 

Degrees of Comparison. 

Large This is a large house, 

larger There is a larger house, 

largest That is the largest house. 

Small He has a small apple, 

smaller She has a smaller apple, 

smallest I have the smallest apple. 

Short I have three strings ; this is short, 

shorter That is shorter than this, 

shortest But here is the shortest. 

Long Here are three sticks ; one is long, 

longer One is longer than the other, 

longest And one is the longest. 

Tall This man is tall, 

taller That man is taller than he, 

taller A tree is taller than either, 

tallest But the church steeple is the tallest. 

High Here is a high tree, 

higher There is a higher tree, 

highest That is the highest tree. 

Low There is a low tree, 

lower The bushes are lower than the tree, 

lowest The grass is the lowest of the three. 

Thick My book is thick, 

thicker Your book is thicker than mine, 

thickest This book is the thickest. 

Thin Here is thin paper, 

thinner There is thinner paper, 

thinnest That is the thinnest paper. 

Old You are an old man, 

older I am not older than you, 

oldest You are the oldest man in company. 

Rich Mr. A is inch, 

richer Mr. B is richer than Mr. A. 

richest But Mr. C— is the richest of the three. 



i 



207 



J 



(G8/A EXERCISE.) 

Poor I am so poor as not to he worth a dollar. 

poorer He is poorer than you, for he has not half a dollar. 

poorest She is the poorest, for she is not worth a cent. 

Liltlc She is a Utile girl, 

less I am less than she is, 

least Maria is least of the three. 

Young Phebe is a young woman, 

younger Sally is younger than she, 

youngest Harriet is the youngest of the three. 

Fat I ate some fat meat, and it made me sick. 

falter It was fatter than that meat. 

fattest But this meat is the fattest. 

Lean Give me some lean meat. 

leaner Give me some that is leaner than this. 

leanest I want some of the leanest. 

Hot It is very hot weather. 

hotter The weather is hotter this week than last. 

hottest This is the hottest day we have had this week. 

Cold It was cold weather. 

colder It is colder now than it was, but 

coldest The coldest weather is in January. 

Clear This is a clear day. 

clearer It is dearer to-day than it was yesterday. 

clearest To-day is the clearest day this week. 

Dull The adz is dull, 

duller The axe is duller than the ada. 

dullest The hoe is the dullest of the three. 

Sharp My pen-knife is sharp. 

sharper His pen-knife is sharper than yours. 

sharpest I have the sharpest pen-knife. 

Fine I want someone linen. 

finer I want some finer than that. 

finest Let me see some of your finest. 

Clean Your face is not clean. 

cleaner His face is cleaner than yours. 

cleanest Her face is the cleanest. 



I 



liU'3 



J 



(G8//i EXERCISE.) 

Full The barrel is not full. 

fuller You can fill it fuller. 

fullest This barrel is the fullest. 

Haul This brick is hard. 

harder This stone is harder than the brick. 

hardest This iron is the hardest. 

Soft Here is a soft brick. 

softer This cork is softer than the brick. 

softest This sponge is the softest. 

Bright The candle is bright. 

brighter The stars are brighter than the candle. 

brightest The sun is the brightest. 

Cheap I bought my hat cheap. 

cheaper His was bought cheaper. 

cheapest Her's was bought the cheapest. 

Dear She bought a dear hat. 

dearer His hat was dearer than hers. 

dearest I bought the dearest hat. 

Smooth The floor is smooth. 

smoother The bench is smoother than the floor. 

smoothest The slate is the smoothest of the three. 

Pale Her color is gone ; she grows pale. 

paler She grows paler aud paler. 

palest She is palest, now she has fainted. 

Tight Her frock is tied tight. 

tighter His shoes are tied tighter than her frock. 

tightest The cord around her waist is the Ugliest. 

Sweet A peach is sweet. 

sweeter Sugar is sweeter than a peach. 

sweetest Honey is the sweetest. 

Good Your writing is good. 

better His writing is better. 

best Her writing is best. 

Bad John is a bad boy. 

worse William is worse than John. 

>vorst James is the worst of all. 



[ 209 ] 
(68/A EXERCISE.) 

Near That door is near me. 

nearer You are nearer to me than that door, 

nearest or She is the nearest to me. 

next She stands next to me. 

Late It was late when I got to school, 

later John came later than I did. 

latest or James was the latest. 

last He came last of all. 

Much He drank too much wine, 

more I drank more water than wine, 

most He drank the most wine. 

Bitter This nut is bitter, 

more This beer is more bitter than the nut. 

most This porter is the most bitter of the three. 

Tender Here is a good tender piece of beef, 

more The goose is more tender than the beef, 

most The chickens are the most tender. 

Hungry Give it to the poor hungry man. 

more The child is more hungry than the man. 

most I am the most hungry. 

Thirsty The boy is thirsty, give him something to drink, 

more He is not more thirsty than she is. 

most I am the most thirsty. 

Handsome That lady is handsome. 

more This lady is more handsome than that, 

most I saw the most handsome lady in the city. 

Beautiful She was beautiful. 

more No one could be more beautiful. 

most She was the most beautiful lady I ever saw. 

Muddy The side-walk is muddy. 

more It is more muddy in the yard, 

most The street is the most muddy. 

Frequent He is frequent in going to church, 

more She is more frequent than she is. 

most They are the most frequent. 

c c 



I 210 ] 

(68/A EXERCISE.) 

Quarrelsome He is quarrelsome. 

more She is more quarrelsome. 

most They are the most quarrelsome people I 

know. 

Rainy There was a rainy day last week, 

more Yesterday was more rainy. 

m °st To-day is the most rainy. 

69th EXERCISE. 
Singular and Plural. 

1. BY ADDING S TO THE SINGULAR. 

Awl That awl belongs to the shoe-maker. 

awls Awls are used by shoe-makers. 

ape An ape is a kind of monkey. 

apes Ayes mimic the aetions of men. 

axe A man cut his foot with an axe. 

axes I bought three axes for one dollar each. 

ant I saw a very small ant on the ground. 

ants I saw hundreds of ants in the yard. 

bee The boy was stung by a bee. 

bees Bees make honey. 

bow The boy shot a cat with his bow and arrow. 

bows The boys are shooting with their bows and 

arrows, 

bat I saw a bat last evening, 

bats Hats fly at night, 

bug A bug flew in the window, 

bugs Bugs are very plenty in summer, 

cow Our cow gives a pail full of milk, 

cows The cows are milked by women, 
cat Our cat caught a rat. 

cats Rats are afraid of cats, 
cap She wore a plain cap. 

caps She made her own caps. 



211 





(69th EXERCISE.) 


Dog 


The dog barks. 


dogs 


The dogs barked all night. 


egg 


He is eating an egg. 


eggs 


Eggs are laid by hens. 


eel 


That eel is good to eat. 


eels 


These eels are slippery. 


fun 


The fan gives wind. 


fans 


She has two fans. 


gun 


He is loading his gun. 


guns 


Those guns made a noise, 


hat 


Put on your hat. 


hats 


Take off your hats. 


hen 


My little hen laid an egg. 


kens 


Take this corn and feed the hens. 


hoe 


The hoe is in the garden. 


hoes 


The hoes are all in the garden. 


.J"S 


The jug is full of wine. 


j«gs 


Fill the other jugs with water. 


key 


The key is in the door. 


keys 


Bring me the bunch of keys. 


owl 


I saw an awl in the museum. 


owls 


Owls can see best at night. 


pen 


I want a new pen. 


pens 


The pens are all mended. 


pin 


Give me a pin. 


pins 


The pins are all gone. 


pot 


The pot is over the fire. 


pots 


The pots are all clean. 


Fat 


The rat was caught by the cat. 


rats 


Our cellar is full of rats. 


top 


The boy spins his fop. 


tops 


The boys are spinning their tops. 


saw 


He let the saw fall and broke it. 


saws 


Mr. S sells saws ; go and buy one, 


book 


This book is full of pictures. 


books 


You must not tear your books. 



[ 



212 



] 



(69th EXERcrsE.) 

Bear I saw a great white bear in the museum, 

bears Some bears are white, and some arc black, 

boat I sailed in a boat. 

boats The river was full of boats. 

" I counted twenty boats in the river, 

bell I heard the bell ring, 

bells The bells are ringing for fire, 

boot My boot is ripped, 

boots He has a new pair of boots* 

bird The bird flew away, 

birds I saw a flock of birds. 

2. PLURAL FORMED BY ADDING eS TO THE SINGULAR. 

Fox He is as sly as afox. 

foxes Foxes steal chickens and hens. 

fish I caught ajlsh with my hook and line. 

fishes He caught five fishes. 

dish The dish fell and broke in two. 

dishes The dishes are on the table. 

miss I saw Miss Eliza this morning. 

misses She was walking with three other little Misses. 

rush The rush grows in wet ground. 

rushes Chair bottoms are made of rushes. 

hiss The hiss of the goose alarmed her. 

hisses I heard his hisses without alarm. 

kiss Give me a kiss. 

kisses Children are fond of kisses. 

box She gave me a box on the ear. 

boxes She gave me two boxes. 

brush Take the brush and sweep the hearth. 

brushes Let us go in and look at the brushes. 

3. PLURAL FORMED BY CHANGING f OB.fe INTO teS. 

Loaf Let me have a shilling loaf of bread, 

loaves We eat five loaves of bread a day. 

wife That man's wife is dead, 

wives He has had three wives. 



[ 



213 



J 



(69th EXERCISE.) 

Life He leads an idle life. 

lives I was reading the (ires of the poets. 

knife You must not cut sticks with my knife. 

knives He is grinding the knives. 

sheaf Go to the harn and hring me a sheaf of straw. 

sheaves It will take two sheaves to make a straw-hed. 

leaf There is not a leaf on the tree. 

leaves The caterpillars have eat up all the leaves. 

4. PLURAL FORMED BY CHANGING y AND Cy INTO ies. 

Beauty She is a great beauty. 

beauties I saw a number of beauties in my walk. 

cherry You gave me only one cherry. 

cherries You must not eat all the cherries. 

twenty I am twenty years old. 

twenties You have seen three twenties. 

thirty He cannot count thirty. 

thirties I counted them, and there were three thirties. 

forty He counted forty. 

forties Count the whole by forties. 

fifty There are fifty dollars in this bundle. 

fifties Put the money up in bundles of fifties. 

baby My sister has a baby. 

babies I heard the babies cry. 

lady That lady made me a present. 

ladies You should thank the ladies for their visit. 

monkey The monkey was tied with a rope. 

monkies There are a great many monkies in the museum. 

turkey We had a roasted turkey for dinner. 

turkies He bought three large turkies. 

salary He receives a moderate salary for preaching. 

salaries Some preachers receive large salaries. 

5. SINGULAR AND PLURAL ALIKE. 

Deer I saw a beautiful tame deer. 

deer Mr. Scudder has two deer in the museum. 



[ 



214 



I 



(69//l EXERCISE.) 

Sheep I saw a sheep after the butcher had killed it. 

sheep The butcher drove a flock of sheep through the 

street, 

swine A large swine upset the chair, 

swine The swine run at large in New-York, 

shrimp A New-York shrimp is small, 

shrimp Shrimp are very good to eat. 

6. NOUNS IN THE SINGULAR ONLY. 

Sloth William is a great sloth. 

wheat He took the wheat to mill to be ground. 

pride Pride will have a fall. 

gold All is not gold that shines. 

iron Iron is the most useful of the metals, 

copper The tea-kettle is made of copper. 

silver The tea and table spoons are silver. 

lead We make much use of lead. 

tin Tin is a very useful metal. 

lye With the lye of ashes we make soap. 

goodness Her goodness was no protection. 

meekness She is full of meekness. 

kindness He is all kindness. 

hatred He shows great haired to all his friends. 

revenge He is full of revenge. 

poverty He is depressed with poverty: 

bread They eat a large quantity of bread. 

beer We drank two gallons of beer. 

7. NOUNS IN THE PLURAL ONLY. 

Bellows Blow the fire with the bellows. 

ashes Take up the ashes. 

pincers He pinched me with the pincers. 

scissors He is cutting paper with the scissors. 

snuffers Snuff the candle with the snuffers. 

riches No one knows the extent of his riches. 
goods The goods were sold at auction. 

tongs Bring me a coal of fire with the tongs. 



L 



215 



] 



Ox 

oxen 

man 

men 

woman 

women 

child 

children 

brother 

brothers, or 

brethren 

foot 

feet 

goose 

geese 

mouse 

mice 

louse 

lice 

penny 

pennies, or 

pence 

die 

dice 



(69th EXERCISE.) 

8. PLURAL IRREGULAR. 

The ox is in the yard. 

The oxen are ploughing. 

I saw a man fall into the river. 

I saw two men take him out. 

She is a very kind woman. 

Three women were walking together. 

The child is asleep. 

The children are playing in the yard. 

My brother is gone to sea. 

She has three brothers. 

I beseech you brethren, to he kind unto one 

another. 
He was wounded in thejfoof. 
Both his feet were frozen. 
I shot a wild goose. 
I saw a flock of wild geese. 
The cat killed the mouse. 
The mice ran into the hole. 
There is a louse. 

Lice live among the hairs of the head. 
Give me a 'penny. 
I gave you two pennies yesterday. 
I have six pence in my pocket. 
The die is cast, and you must go. 
You must not play with dice. 



70th EXERCISE. 
Masculine and Feminine Gender. 

1. FORMED BY DIFFERENT TERMINATIONS. 

Actor He is an actor on the stage, 

actress She is an actress. 

heir He is heir (o a large estate, 

heiress She is a great heiress. 



[ 



216 



1 



(70th EXERCISE.) 

Poet The man you saw is a poet. He writes 

poetry, 
poetess That woman is a poetess. She writes poetry, 

hunter The hunter hunts wild beasts, 

huntress We have no example of a huntress in this 

country. 

patron Mr. B is my patron and friend. 

patroness Mrs. C is my patroness. 

benefactor He was my benefactor in time of need, 

benefactress Mary was my benefactress. 
tiger The hunters killed a tiger. 

tigress The tigress has whelps. 

tutor Mr. D is a tutor. 

tutoress Miss E is our tutoress. 

priest The preacher performs the office of a priest, 

priestess A priestess is a female who officiated in 

ancient heathen rites, 
lion A lion is a strong and powerful animal, 

lioness The lioness is ferocious when she has young 

ones, 
testator The testator left me one thousand dollars 

by his will, 
testatrix The testatrix left a large estate to her heirs, 
master He is master of his own actions, 
mistress She is mistress of her own time, 
hero Perry, the hero of Lake Erie, is dead, 
heroine She is the heroine of the north, 
shepherd The shepherd tends his flocks, 
shepherdess The shepherdess is a female shepherd, 
executor He was executor to my father's estate, 
executrix My mother was executrix. 
administrator Mr. S was administrator to my uncle's 

estate, 
administratrix My aunt was the administratrix. 
emperor The emperor of France is in confinement, 

empress The empress lives in retirement. 



Governor 
governess 



Bachelor 

maid 

brother 

sister , 

buck 

doe 

sloven 

slut 

horse 

mare 

dog 

bitch 

master 

mistress 

king 

queen 

bull 

cow 

man 

woman 

father 

mother 

cock 

hen 

bride 

bridegroom 

boy 

girl 

boar 

sow 



[ 217 ] 

(70/A EXERCISE.) 
The governor issued his proclamation. 
The governess gave her orders before her 
departure. 

2. FORMED BY DIFFERENT WORDS. 

A bachelor is an unmarried man. 

An unmarried woman is called a maid. 

Her brother is dead. 

Ilis sister is sick. 

A buck is a male deer. 

A doe is a female deer. 

That man is a great sloven. 

That girl is a great slut. 

The horse kicked his feet through the stable: 

I have a mare, and she has a colt. 

A mad dog will bite his best friend. 

The bitch suckles her pups. 

He is master of his own actions. 

She is mistress of her own time. 

The king put an end to himself. 

"When the queen landed in England, the people 

gave her a welcome. 
The bull gored an ox. 
The cow choked herself with an apple. 
The man hung himself with a rope. 
The woman grieved herself to death. 
My father was an industrious man. 
My mother was a prudent woman. 
The cocfe crows in the morning. 
The hen scratches for her chickens. 
The bride was arrayed in her best attire. 
The bride and bridegroom went to church. 
The little boy stubbed his toe against a stone. 
The little girl is playing with her doll. 
The boar bit a child. 
The sow has eight pigs. 



[ 



213 



J 



(70th EXERCISE.) 

Uncle My uncle is a very good man. 

aunt My aunt is a very good woman. 

son His son is a fine hoy. 

daughter Your daughter is a beautiful girl. 

nephew My nephew lost his father when he was 

a hoy. 

niece My niece lias gone to see her sister, 

lad The lad is almost a man. 

lass She is a pretty lass. 

lord My lord, you shall be obeyed, 

lady His lady is a beautiful woman. 

3. BY THE ADDITION OF A WORD. 

Man-servant Mr. F wants a man-servant. 

maid-servant I can recommend to you a maid-servant. 

he-goat The he-goat butts with his head, 

she-goat The she-goat has two kids, 

male child This is a male-child. 

female-child That is a female-child. 

he-bear My father shot a great he-hear. 

she-bear The she-bear had two cubs, 

male-scholar The male-scholar is slow in learning, 

female-scholar The/emale-sc/iolar is quick in learning, 

black-man Call the black-man to pile the wood, 

black-woman The black-woman is washing the clothes, 

black-boy Send the black-boy to the pump for water, 

black-girl Tell the black-girl to bring up the dinner, 

drake The drake is swimming in the water, 

duck The duck is sitting on her eggs. 



7 1st EXERCISE. 

Exercise on the following Words. 

This, These, Each, Either, Neither, One, 



That, Those, Every, Or, 



Nor, 



Other. 



[ 219 ] 

(7]st EXERCISE.) 
1. THIS AND THAT. 

I will forgive you this time. 

I forgive you this once, but remember the next time, you 

shall be whipped. 
This is what I said. 

I said you told a lie. 
That is not what you said. 

You said I stole sixpence. 

I said you stole sixpence, and you denied it j and 

Then I said you told a lie. 
This is the whole of what I said, and that is the truth. 
This is my hat, that is yours. 

She may recover from her sickness, but she must die 
at last. 
This is certain, that is not. 
This book is mine, and that slate is mine. 
J gave that ball for this apple. 
Thai house is higher than this. 
That tree is not so high as this house. 
Give me that apple, and I will give you this top. 
I would rather have this apple than that top. 
I can see better from this place than from that. 
I prefer this country to that, 
I would rather live in this climate than in that of Georgia. 

2. THESE AND THOSE. 

These girls are attentive, those boys are not. 

These boys are noisy, those girls are quiet. 

I gave four shillings for these oranges, and two for those 

apples. 
The sun, moon and stars display the glory of God : 
Tiiese are thy works, Almighty Father, parent of good : 
Let those who deny thee examine thy works ; their eyes will 
be opened, and their tongues will be loosened in thy praise. 
These will speak in honor of thy name, 
And those will see thy glory and thy salvation. 



[ 220 ] 

(7 1st EXERCISE.) 
3. EACH AND EVERT. 

I gave a penny to each of the girls. 

Every one of them has a penny. 

I offered a dollar to each of them, but every one of them 

refused to take it. 
I examined each piece of cloth, and every one of them was 

damaged. 
They are bad boys ; every one of them deserves a whipping, 

and I will give it to each of them. 
I gave each a task ; every one learned it. 

4. EITHER AND OR. 

Either you are right, or I am right. 
Either you are wrong, or I am wrong. 
Either I am right, or you are right. 
Either I am wrong, or you are wrong. 
If you are right, then I am not right. 
If you are wrong, then I am not wrong. 
If I am right, then you are not right. 
If I am wrong, then you are not wrong. 
He says either you or I must go. 
Either he or she will show you. 
Either these shoes or those will fit her. 
Either this hat or that hat will suit her. 
I will buy either this or that bonnet. 
I will go either to-day or to-morrow* 

5. NEITHER AND NOR. 

I will neither quarrel nor fight. 
You shall neither eat nor drink. 
Thou shalt not kill, neither shalt thou bear false witness 

against thy neighbor. 
Thou shalt neither kill, nor bear false witness against thy 

neighbor. 
Neither he nor they speak the truth. 
Neither of them speak the truth. 
Neither we nor they have suffered. 



I 



221 



] 



(715/ EXERCISE.) 

Neither of us have suffered. 

I will neither give it to him nor to you. 

I will neither give it for love nor money. 

I say it is wrong ; neither this nor that is right. 

6. ONE AND OTHER. 

T gave him one apple, he took the other. 

One is sweet, the other is sour. 

One good turn deserves an other. 

Two boys were stealing ; the one was taken, the other ran 

away. 
Both his children were sick ; the one has recovered, the 

other died. 
One girl is dead, the other is dying. 
One tree is full of fruit, the other is not. 
When you stand on one foot, you hold up the other. 
I stand with one foot upon one bench, and the other foot upon 

the other bench. 
I will neither give you one nor the other, 

72d EXERCISE. 

DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 

1. QUADRUPEDS. 

Horse. Mare and Colt. 




n& 




You have seen a horse. He is a very useful animal, and 
is made to work for us. A horse is used to carry a man on 
his back. This is ealled riding on horse-hack. A bridle is 



I 

(12(1 EXERCISE.) 
put on his head to guide him, and a saddle on his hack, 
that we may sit easy, with stirrups to rest the feet in. We 
can travel on horse-hack much fetter than a man can walk. 
Horses at one time were all wild, and ran in the woods like 
other wild animals. They were caught and tamed, and have 
become domesticated, and are very necessary for the comfort 
and enjoyment of civilized life. In some countries horses 
are yet found wild. Other animals as well as horses have 
been tamed, and are called domestic animals. 

The horse is not only useful to us for riding on horse-back, 
but he is accustomed to draw a carriage, a riding-chair, a 
waggon, a cart, and a sleigh. A carriage has four wheels, 
and is generally drawn by two horses. Those who are rich 
ride in a carriage for amusement and pleasure. A riding- 
chair is also used for pleasure, but sometimes for business. 
The harness is put on the horse's back, and he is tackled 
before the chair, and guided by a long bridle called the 
lines. We then get in the chair and go a chair-riding, 

A waggon has four wheels, and is used by farmers to ride 
in, and to carry things in it. It is drawn by two horses. 
A cart is drawn by one horse, and is employed in cities, to 
draw heavy loads or burthens, from one place to another. 
In winter, sh'ighs are used for business or pleasure ; and a 
sleigh is drawn on the snow by one or two horses. 

Thus by the help of the horse, we can do more work, or 
move quicker from one place to another, than we can with- 
out him. We can ride on horse-back, in a coach, in a chair, 
a waggon, a cart, or a sleigh. But the most useful and 
extensive employment to which the horse is applied, is that 
of ploughing and harrowing the ground, to plant and sow 
seeds, which when grown, furnish food for man and beast. 

You must observe that a horse has some parts which an- 
swer the same purposes as similar ones in ourselves. The 
horse has a head, a mouth, ears, eyes, teeth, nostrils and 
legs ; which are employed by him, as the same parts are by 
a man. His head, however, is long, and very differently 



[ 223 ] 

(72(7 EXERCISE.) 
shaped from ours ; his mouth is large, and his teeth stout 
and strong ; his ears are long and pointed, and can he moved 
backward and forward, to hear a noise made before or be- 
hind him ; his nostrils are wide, and when he is frightened, 
he starts and snorts. The eyes of a horse are very much 
like those of a man, but they are larger. We have two legs, 
a horse has four; and instead of feet he has hoofs, which 
are hard and hornij. To prevent the hoofs wearing out, 
the black-smith puts iron-shoes upon them, and makes them 
fast with iron-nails. 

The horse has other parts very different from a man. On 
his neck is long hair, which is called a mane, and on his tail 
is similar hair. On his legs, above the hoofs behind, is a 
small bunch of hair named the fetlocks. The whole surface 
of the body and skin is covered with short hair. 

A male horse is sometimes called a stud, and the female 
horse a mare. The mare suckles her young one, which is 
called a colt. The horse is probably the most useful of all 
the domestic animals, and we should be kind to it, and care- 
ful in protecting it. 

The flesh of the horse is not good to eat, but the hair is 
useful, and the skin of the animal when dead, is tanned and 
made into stout and strong leather. Horses neigh, and the 
noise which they make is called neighing. They fight and 
defend themselves by biting and kicking with their hind-feet. 



Bull. 



[ 22 4 ] 

(72rf EXERCISE.) 

Cow and Calf. 





Among domestic animals, although the horse is highly 
useful and necessary, it would be difficult to say if those of 
the cow kind are less so ; as they answer so many valuable 
purposes. They are called neat-cattle, and include the bull, 
the ox, the cow, and the calf. The male is called the bull, 
the female the cow, and the young one a calf. The ox was 
once a bull, but by particular management when young, has 
become tame and submissive. He is larger than the bull, 
and has long and slender horns. The bull is surly and cross, 
and cannot l>e yoked to the plough or waggon, as an ox. 
He fights with his horns, which are short and thick, and 
kicks with his hind-feet. 

Neat-cattle have some parts different from those of a 
horse, or other domestic animal. They have a long head, 
mouth, nose and eyes, somewhat like those of a horse : but 
on the top of the head they have crooked tapering horns, 
with which they fight and defend themselves. Their ears, 
like those of the horse, are moveable, but broader and not 
so sharp. They have a long tail, which is bushy at the end. 
Their legs, like those of a horse, are terminated in hoofs, 
which are divided in the middle, but those of the horse are 
not. The cow has a large bag with four teats, from which 
she suckles her calf. 

The uses of neat-cattle are numerous. The bull is so 
unruly, that he is not employed to work. The ox, on the 
coatrary, is yoked to the plough, the harrow, and the loaded 



\ 



I 225 ] 

(72d EXERCISE.) 
cart ; and by his great strength and docility, can be em- 
ployed to great advantage. If from any cause, the ox is not 
able to work, he is fatted and killed by the butcher, and the 
flesh is called beef. The flesh of the cow is also called beef, 
which is very good food. A calf when nearly grown to a 
cow, is called a heifer. 

The fat of the ox and cow is called tallow, and is made 
into candles. When an ox or cow is killed, the skin is called 
a hide, or an ox-hide, or a cow-hide. These hides are tan- 
ned into leather, of which shoes are made. The hair which 
is scraped from the hides, is mixed with mortar for plaster- 
ing the walls of houses. The horns are preserved and made 
into combs, powder-horns, and some other useful articles. 

When the calf is taken away from the cow and killed, 
its flesh is called veal, and is very tender and good to eat. 
The skin of the calf is also made into fine leather, of which 
ladies' shoes are made. 

When the calf is killed the cow continues to give milk, 
which is eaten and drunk by us all. It is very rich and 
nourishing. After milk stands a while, cream rises on the 
top, and this is churned and converted into butter, which 
we daily eat. 

Cheese is made of milk. Cows eat the grass which grows 
in the field : and if they have plenty of that, they give a 
great quantity of milk, and pay us in this way for the care 
we take to provide them food. Cows are milked morning 
and evening by women. 

Cows low, bulls belloic, and calves baa. The cry which 
cows make is a mournful noise called lowing; that of the 
bull is loud and frightful, and called bellowing, while the 
baaing of the calf is pitiful and unpleasant, but the Deaf 
and Dumb cannot hear it. 



F-e 



[ 226 ] 
(72(1 EXERCISE.) 

Boar. Sow and Pigs. 





Animals of the hog kind are principally used for food. 
They are fatted to be killed and eaten. The flesh of hogs 
is called pork, and is sold in market like other meat ; hut 
it is also "preserved with salt, and kept in barrels for 
future use. It is then called salt-pork. Salt-pork will keep 
a long while without spoiling, but fresh-pork will not. The 
fat of a hog is called lard, or hog's lard, and is separated 
from the meat and is used for cooking. The intestines arc 
cleaned and filled with the flesh of the hog, chopped fine, 
and are then called sausages. When the hog is cut up into 
pieces for salting, it is then packed away into barrels with 
coarse salt. After three or four weeks, some parts arc taken 
out of the barrels and hung up in a smoke-house, smoked 
and dried, and in that state will keep a year without spoil- 
ing. Salt-pork thus smoked is called bacon, and that which 
was the thick part of the fore-leg is called a shoulder of 
bacon, and the hind-leg a ham, or a smoked-ham. Beef is 
also salted and smoked in the same way, and is called 
smoked-beef. 

The hair of the hog is very different from that of the 
horse and cow, being coarse and rough, and called bristles. 
When hogs are killed, they are then put into boiling water 
for a minute or two, to loosen the bristles, which are then 
pulled out or seraped off with a knife. The bristles are 
very useful, and are sold to the brush-makers, who make 
them into all kinds of brushes. 



[ 227 ] 

(72(1 EXERCISE.) 

Hogs wallow in llic mire, and root in the ground for 
food. They arc fond of wet and muddy places. They make 
two kinds of noise which the Deaf and Dumb cannot hear. 
They commonly grunt ; but when they are frightened or in 
pain, they squeal. 

Hogs have a long head and a blunt nose, which is called 
a snout. They have long and sharp teeth, and on each side 
of the mouth, one tooth is longer than the other. These 
two teeth are named tusks. The ears are broad, and some- 
times hang down over the eyes. The feet are called hoofs, 
and arc divided into two parts before, and two small toes 
behind. 

When a number of hogs are collected together, they make 
what is called a drove of hogs. Hogs are sometimes called 
swine. The he-hog is called a hoar, and the she-hog a sow, 
while the young ones are named pigs. The sow has many 
teats, and can suckle ten or twelve pigs at the same time. 
When pigs are five or six weeks old, they are fit to eat. 
They arc killed and cleaned, and roasted whole, and are 
called roasters. When a pig is roasted before the fire, or 
baked in an oven, it is called a roast-pig. 

The ivild-boar is a dangerous animal. He fights and 
defends himself with his tusks. The boar runs wild in some 
countries to this day, and is hunted by the hunters on horse- 
hack, for the amusement of hunting, and for the flesh of the 
animal. 

The hog in his domesticated state, loses a great part of 
his natural wildness and ferocity ; but there is so much of 
it still left, that we frequently say of a man, that he is a 
hog, and sometimes that he is as rough as a hog, if he does 
not possess the disposition and manners of a gentleman, and 
behaves rough and rude to others. 



[ 



228 



J 



(72d EXERCISE.) 

Ram. Ewe and Lamb. 





There are three names applied to sheep. The he-sheep is 
called a ram, the she-sheep a ewe, and the young one a lamb. 

The ram has generally two crooked horns on his head, 
but the ewe and lamb have none. The sheep was once a 
•wild animal, but it is not now found in a wild state. It has 
become completely domesticated, and is one of the mildest 
and gentlest of domestic animals. It is useful to man, by 
the food and clothing it produces. 

The flesh of the sheep is called mutton, or lamb, when it 
is part of a young one. The fat is called tallow, or mutton- 
tallow, and is used with beef -tallow to make candles. 'Sheep 
do not grow so large as hogs, and (hey have smaller ears. 
Their hoofs, like those of the hog, are divided in the middle. 
The flesh of the sheep is eaten fresh, and seldom salted. 

Instead of hair, sheep have their bodies covered with 
curly wool, which is cut off or sheared every summer, and 
made into cloth. The wool, after being washed clean, is 
carded and spun into yarn, and then wove into cloth. The 
skins of sheep are tanned, and made into leather called 
sheepskin. 

Rams fight and defend themselves with their head and 
horns. They run against one another when they fight, and 
hull with their heads, and that which is the strongest, beats 
the other, and he runs. The cry which sheep make is called 
Heating. 



[ 229 ] 
(72J EXERCISE.) 

He-goat. She-goat and Kid. 





The goat is still found in a wild state, and living among 
the mountains, where it climbs up the steep rocks, seeks 
for grass and other food, and where it cannot be hunted by 
men. The goat is about the size of the sheep, and is easily 
distinguished by its long beard. Goats are not so useful as 
sheep. Wild-goats are hunted for their skins, which are 
used to cover trunks, and for other purposes. The flesh is 
not so good to eat as that of the sheep, except it be the flesh 
of the young goat, which is called a kid. Goats are kept 
in a domestic state, principally for their kids, and the milk 
which they give. Goat's-milk has been highly recommended 
in some diseases, as efficacious hi effecting a cure. 



Dog. 



Bitch and Pups. 





The dog is the most faithful of domestic animals, and is 
most attached to man. He is gentle and generous, and 
grateful for the food and protection which his master gives 



[ 230 J 

[12d EXERCISE.) 
him. The dog is allowed to be one of the most intelligent 
of animals, and one that, doubtless, is most to be Admired ; 
for, independent of his beauty, his vivacity and swiftness, 
he gives the most manifest proofs of his attachment to man. 

The dog willingly crouches before bis master, and is ever 
ready to lick his hand, in token of kindness and submission. 
He waits his master's orders, consults his looks, and is 
always ready to obey him. He is constant in his affections, 
friendly without interest, and grateful for the slightest favor 
he can receive ; easily forgets bad usage and cruelty, and 
disarms resentment by submissively yielding to the will of 
those whom he endeavors to serve and please. 

His sagacity can only be exceeded by his fidelity ; for he 
will discover a beggar by his clothes ; and when at night he 
is put in charge of tbe bouse, no sentinel can protect it with 
greater care. If a stranger approaches, he immediately 
sounds an alarm by barking ; and should he come too near, 
the dog would spring upon and bite him, unless forbidden 
by his master. The dog guards his master's house, pro- 
tects it from thieves, and shows an attachment that must at 
once both delight and please. He is useful to man in a 
variety of ways. 

When the dog sees a man, an animal, or any thing ap- 
proach that he is not accustomed to see, he begins to growl, 
and then he barks, and the noise calls his master. When 
he is sick he howls, and when he is hurt or in pain, he 
yelps. Dogs are very useful to the farmer in the country, 
but of little use in the city. Dogs' feet are called paws, 
and are divided into toes, with a horny nail on each. The 
she-dog is called a bitch, and her young ones pups. 

In hot weather dogs sometimes become sick and run mad; 
and if then they bite a man, it poisons him, and some 
months afterwards he is seized with hydrophobia ; and when 
he has that disease he cannot drink water, and dies in con- 
vulsions. 



He-cat. 



E 231 ] 
{12(1 EXERCISE.) 

She-cat fy Kittens. 





The cat is a domestic animal that lives in the house with 
us, and is particularly useful in killing rats and mice, which 
creep into holes and corners, and at night come out and eat 
the food which was prepared for ourselves. The cat is 
quick in seeing and smelling, particularly in the dark, when 
we cannot see. The cat has hairs on the upper lip, called 
whiskers. Its head is round, and not like that of the dog, 
the goat, or the hog. The skin is covered with fine and 
smooth hair, called jfur, which, with other furs, is made into 
muffs and tippets. The young of the cat are called kittens, 
and when they cry they mew. 



DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 

2. Birds. 

Cock. Hen § Chickens. 





There are some hirds, among domestic animals, which 
have been tamed, and live about the habitations of men. 



[ 232 ] 

(72rf EXERCISE.) 
Of these, the fowls called barn-door-fowls are not the least 
useful. They are the cock, the hen, and chickens. The 
hen lays eggs, which are very good to eat. She sits upon 
them, and they are hatched into chickens. Chickens, when 
two or three months old, are very good and tender food. 
Fowls are raised for their eggs, and for their flesh, which 
supply us with excellent eating. 

The cock crows in the morn, and gives us notice of the 
first approach of day. The cock is an early riser. He 
flaps his wings and crows, to let us know that we must be 
up, and not sleep while the sun shines. After the sun is 
set, the cock retires to his roost and sleeps 'till day-light. 
He is a handsome bird, and is distinguished by a red comb 
on the top of his head, and red gills under his chin. He 
has handsome tail feathers, and long sharp spurs on his legs, 
with which he fights and defends himself. The cock is a 
great fighter, and is sometimes so resolute that he will con- 
tinue to fight 'till he is killed. 

The hen is not so handsome a bird as the cock. She is 
a timid animal, and in general, flies from danger on the 
least alarm ; but when she has chickens she is courageous, 
and will defend them to the utmost. When the hawk flies 
in sight and hovers over her young brood, she calls her 
chickens to fly from danger, while she watches the motions 
of the hawk, and stands ready to fight him. When night 
approaches she collects them under her wings, and sitting 
down upon the ground, keeps them warm all the night. 
While she has chickens, she clucks and calls them to her. 
With her feet and claws she scratches up the ground, and 
picks up the seeds of grain about the barn, which she 
teaches her chickens to eat. 






Gander. 



[ 233 ] 
(72d EXERCISE.) 

Goose § Goslings. 





The goose is a tame and domesticated bird, much larger 
than the hen, and supplies us with its flesh for food, and 
feathers for making beds. Every summer the feathers are 
plucked from the geese, and before winter they grow out 
again. 

The he-goose is called a gander, and the young geese, 
goslings. The goose is a water-bird ; that is to say, it de- 
lights to swim upon the water, where it seeks for food. 
The hen, on the contrary, is a kind-bird, and does not go in 
the water. The goose has four toes on each foot. Three 
of the toes project forward, and one backward ; and the 
three forward toes are united by a web, which enables it to 
push itself forward and swim. The goose is therefore 
called a web-foot ed-bird. The goose lays a large white egg, 
three times the size of a hen's egg. Geese supply us with 
quills for writing. 

Wild-geese are plenty in this country, and they are often 
seen Hying in large Jlocks, high in the air. They fly north- 
ward in the spring, lay their eggs, and hatch them in lonely 
and retired places, where they are not disturbed by men. 

In the winter the cold weather covers the rivers with ice, 
and then the wild geese cannot swim in the water, and then 
they fly south, where there is not so much ice. 



Iff 



Drake. 



[ 234 ] 
(72c? EXERCISE.) 

Duck £5 Ducklings. 





The duek is another water-bird or web-footed-bird, which 
has been tamed. It is smaller than the goose, hut also de- 
lights to swim in the water. Like the goose, it supplies us 
with its flesh, eggs and feathers. The male duck is called 
a drake, and the young ones ducklings. When the ducks 
cry they quack. The duck lays a great many eggs, which 
are larger than hen's eggs. 



Cock-turkey. 



Hen-turkey & Young-turkies. 






^-rrrrr,*'.'* 





The turkey is a land-bird, which was first found wild in 
America, and has been tamed, and is one of the best birds 
for food that is known. Its body is larger than a goose, 
and its flesh is much better. It lays a great many eggs, 
which are not so large as those of a goose. The cock-turkey 
is a proud bird. He sometimes spreads his broad fan-t a il, 
raises his wings, and stmts about, as if to show himself, 
and to be admired. 



[ 235 ] 

73d EXERCISE. 

Interrogation, or Manner of Asking Questions. 

The following words are used in asking questions, and have 
reference to time, place, manner, persons or things, &c. viz. 
Who, whose, whom, refer to persons. 
Which, and what, to persons and things. 
When, refers to time. 
Where, whence, whither, to place. 
How, to manner and number. 
Can, to possibility. 
Will, to inquiry and willingness. 
Shall, and may, to permission. 
Must, to condition. 
Is and are, to the singular and plural. 
Why, and wherefore, to reason. 
Do, to time present. 
Did, to time past. 
Have, to present possession. 
Had, to past possession. 

Who? 

Who gave you this book ? 

It was given to me by Mr. B . 

Wlio comes there ? 

There comes my papa. 
Who are you ? 

I am a Deaf and Dumb boy. 
Who is that man coming there ? 

It is Mr. M . 

Who is the lady I see here ? 

It is Mrs. G . 

Who is that girl with red hair ? 

It is Miss G 

Wlio arc those persons sitting there ? 

They are visiters. 
Who told you where to go ? You told me. 



[ 236 j 

(73c? EXERCISE.) 

Whose ? 
Whose hat is that ? It is John's hat. 
Whose hook is that ? It is Mary's book. 
Whose house is this ? It belongs to Mr. A« 
WJwse boots are these ? 
Whose do you think they are ? 

I think they are not mine. 
In whose praise did he speak ? 

He spoke in his own praise. 
To whose school do you go ? 

I go to Mr. S 's school. 

By whose order was that done ? 

It was done by Mr. B 's order. 

From whose account did you receive it ? 

From Mr. C 's account. 

At whose house did you sleep ? 

At Mr. D 's house. 

Of whose kindness did you speak ? 

I spoke of Mr. E 's kindness. 

Whom ? 

In whom do you trust ? I trust in God. 
In whom should I trust ? 

You should trust in God only. 
To whom shall I give this peach ? 

Give it to me. 
To whom was the letter directed ? 

It was directed to my sister. 
By whom did you send the letter? 

I sent it by my father. 
By whom was the offence given ? 

It was given by John. 
From whom was the letter received ? 

It was received from my brother* 
From whom did you say 2 

I said from my brother. 



i 237 ] 

(73c? EXERCISE.) 

At whom was the stone thrown ? 

It was thrown at James, and hit John. 
At whom shall I throw the ball ? 

Throw it at me. 
Of whom did you speak ? 

I spoke of Sally C r. 

Of whom can I borrow a book ? 

You can borrow of John G -». 

Which ? 

Which of these hats is yours ? 

That hat is mine. 
Which of you hit John ? 

William hit him with his fist. 
Which house do you live in ? 

I live in that brick-house. 
Which of them do you love best ? 

I love Mary best. 
Which book do you choose ? 

I choose this picture book. 
Which of these girls is your sister ? 

That one is my sister. 
In which house do you live ? 

I live in that house. 
To which room are you going ? 

I am going into the bed-room. 
By which person was your letter brought? 

By Mr. S , who stands there. 

From which place did it come ? 

It came from Albany. 
At which place was it written ? 

It was written in Albany. 
Of which are you most in need, wood or coal? 

I am most in need of coal. 



[ 238 ] 
(73c? EXERCISE.) 

What? 

What shall we do next ? 

Copy your lessons in the book* 
What child is that ? 

It is Mr. L 's child. 

What is his name ? 

His name is Henry L . 

What o'clock is it ? It is one o'clock. 
What do you want ? I want my dinner. 
What day is to-morrow ? It is Sunday. 
In what place did he lay his hat ? 

He laid it under the table. 
To what cause was his sickness owing ? 

To drinking cold water. 
By what means did he hurt himself? 

By falling on a stone. 
From what the Doctor gave him, was he relieved ? 

Yes, Sir. 
At what hour did he return ? 

At ten o'clock at night. 
Of what wood is this bench made ? 

Of pine wood. 

When ? 

When will you go ? I will go to-morrow. 
When will you return ? 

I will return the same day. 
When will it be New- Year ? 

Not in six months. 
Tfhen will it be the 4th of July ? 

In one week. 
When may I go home ? To-morrow. 
When mu9t I return ? In four weeks. 
When does the moon rise ? 

It rises at eight o'clock. 
When is it high tide ? 

It is high tide at twelve o'clock. 



[ 239 ] 

(73d EXERCISE.) 

Where ? 

Where are you going ? 

I am going to school. 
Where is your book ? 

My book is at school. 
Where is Mr. S- — ? 

lie is in the other room. 
Where is Miss C ? 

She is in the country. 
Where did he hit you ? 

He hit me in the side. 
Where was you hurt, when you fell? 

I was hurt on the head. 

Whence ? 

Whence did he bring them ? 

He brought them from the country. 
Whence did he come ? 

He came from Schenectady. 

Whence he came I know not. 

I do not know whence he came. 
Whence is he going ? 

He is going from Bergen. 

Whither ? 

Whither art thou going ? 

I am going to Hartford. 
Whither is he going ? 

He is going to Catskill. 
Whither are we going ? 

We are going to Hudson. 
Whither are they going ? 

They are going to no particular place, 

But only to take a walk. 



I 240 J 
(73d EXERCISE.) 

How? 

How are you going to Albany ? 

I am going in the steam-boat. 
How many are going ? 

There are six of us going. 

Six only are going. 
How will you return ? 

We will return by land. 
How is your mother ? 

She is very well. 
How are all the family ? 

They are all well. 

Can? 

Can I go to sehool to-morrow ? 

No, you are too sick to go. 
Can I have a drink of water ? 

No, it is not good for your sickness. 
Can I drink some wine ? 

Yes, I think it will do you good. 
Can I go down stairs ? 

You may try if it is possible for you to walk 
down stairs. 

Will? 

Will you hear me say my lesson ? 

Yes, I will hear you. 
Will you see if the Deaf and Dumb children kuow 
their lessons ? 
I will see if they know their lessons. 
Will you let me go in the water to swim ? 

I will not let you go $ you will be drowned. 
Will you inform me where the Deaf and Dumb 
school is ? 
Yes, Sir, I will inform you. It is in the Old 
Aims-house in Chamber-street. 



[ 241 ] 

(73(1 EXERCISE.) 

Shall ? 
Shall I go to bed ? 

You shall not go now. 
Shall I and John go take a walk ? 

No, you shall go this afternoon. 
Shall I tell what you said ? 

If you tell I will whip you. 
Shall we see the soldiers ? 

If they pass this way you shall see them. 
Shall we go to school ? 

Not yet, it is too soon. 

You shall go directly. 

May? 

May I have the pleasure of your company this after- 
noon to take tea with me ? 

You may expect me, as it will be a pleasure to 
me to take tea with you. 
May your little girl stay all night with ours ? 

She may, if it is agreeable to you. 
May we go take a walk together ? 

You may, if you will not stay long. 
May we take a walk in the garden ? 

You may, if you will do no mischief. 

Must? 
Must I go to bed ? I do not want to go. 

You must go, whether you will or not. 
Must I speak the truth ? 

You must speak the truth, the whole truth, 
and nothing but the truth. 
Must I get up ? I am sleepy. 

You must get up, or lose your breakfast. 
Must I bear his insults ? 

You must bear his insults, or avoid his company. 
Must I bear my pains without relief? 

You must, if God does not relieve you. 



[ *« ] 
(73<Z EXERCISE.) 

Is? 

Is he in earnest when he says so ? 

I believe he is in earnest. 

He appears to be in earnest. 
Is my book in the other room ? 

No, your book is not there. 
Is it true what he says ? 

I think it is not true. 
Is this knife yours ? No, it is his. 
Is it certain that he is dead ? 

Yes, it is certain. 
Is it true that the theatre was burnt down ? 

It is true ; I have seen the ruins. 
Is there any ice in the river ? 

Yes, the river is full of ice. 
Is the horse ready ? The horse is ready. 

Are ? 
Are we going to-day ? 

Yes, we are going to-day. 
Are you all ready ? 

We are not all ready. 
Are they ready to take a sail ? 

No, they are not ready. 
Are they all well at your house ? 

Yes, they are all well. 
Are we able to lift this table ? 

Yes, we can lift it easy enough. 
Are we to be imposed upon? Certainly not. 
Are you sure you saw him ? 

We are sure we saw him. 
Are you certain it was on Sunday ? 

We are certain. 
Are they friends to the Deaf and Dumb ? 

They are. 
Are they willing to assist the Deaf and Dumb 

By all means. Certainly they are. 



[ 243 ] 
(73c? EXERCISE.) 

Are the apples roasted ? Yes, Sir. 
Are the pear's haked ? Yes, Sir. 

Why? 

Why do you hurry me ? 

Because you must return before dark. 
Why must I return before dark ? 

Because you will be lost. 
Why did the master whip you ? 

Because I struek William W. 
Why did you strike him ? 

Because he struck me first. 
Why did he strike you ? 

Because I stuck a pin in him ? 
Why did you stick a pin in him? 

Because he pinched me. 
Why did he pinch you ? 

Because I kicked him. 
Why did you kick him ? 

Because he trod on my toe. 
Why did he tread on your toe ? 
I do not know, Sir. 

Wherefore ? 

Wherefore must I go ? 

Because you promised to go. 

By reason of your promise. 
Wherefore does that follow ? 

Because you must not break your promise. 
Wlierefore is it required of me ? 

Because I consider it your duty. 
Wherefore does he direct me to do this ? 

I do not know ; he does it without authority. 
WTierefore did he strike me ? 

Because he is passionate, and cannot com- 
mand his passion. 



[ **4 ] 
(73c? EXERCISE.) 

Do? 

Do you ask my advice ? Yes, Sir, I do. 
Do you think I can get there before night ? 

No, I think you cannot. 
Do you admire the ladies ? 

I do admire them. 
Do these ladies please you ? Yes, Sir. 
Do you tell the truth ? Yes, Sir. 
Does he tell an untruth ? 

No, Sir, he tells the truth. 
Does your sister play on the piano-forte ? 

Yes, Sir, she does. 
Do you know your lesson ? Yes, Sir, I do„ 
Do you hear the noise ? 

No, Sir, I do not hear it. 

Did? 

Did he come when you called ? 

He did not come. 
Did you hear the thunder ? No, Sir. 
Did you see the lightning ? Yes, Sir. 
Did you go to the museum yesterday ? No, Sir. 
Did you see the soldiers march through the streets 

Yes, Sir. 
Did the funeral pass this way ? No, Sir. 
Dad you go to church yesterday ? Yes, Sir. 

Have? 

Have you a new hat ? I have. 
Have you any parents ? I have. 
Date they other children besides you ? 

Yes, Sir, they have two. 
Have you any brother ? 

No, Sir, I have two sisters. 
Have you a knife in your pocket ? Yes, Sir. 
Have you a writing-book ? No, Sir. 



[ 245 ] 
(73d EXERCISE.) 

Hare you a good scat ? Yes, Sir. 
Have you a bad seat ? No, Sir* 
Had? 

Had you my pen-knife ? No, Sir. 
Had you cause to repent ? No, Sir, I had not. 
Had he no money in his pocket? No, Sir. 
Had he a desire to see me before lie died ? 

Yes, Sir, he expressed a desire. 
Had lie any cause to complain ? 

No, Sir, he had no cause. 
Had he drunk too much, that made him sick? 

I do not know, Sir. 
Had he his senses when he died ? 

No, Sir, he was speechless. 
Had you any hopes of his recovery ? We had none. 



Promiscuous Questions. 

What is your name ? 

How old are you ? 

Where do you live ? 

In what street do you live ? 

Who do you live with ? 

Do you go to school ? 

How long have you been to school ? 

Where do you go to school ? 

Who is your teacher ? 

Where does he live ? 

Are your parents living ? 

Where are they ? 

Where do they live ? 

Have you any brothers and sisters ? 

How many brothers and sisters have you 

How many brothers have you ? 

How many sisters have you ? 



[ 246 j 

(73tl EXERCISE.) 
Can you hear ? 

Are your brothers and sisters Deaf and Dumb I 
"What made you Deaf? 
Can you speak ? 
Where is the sponge ? 
How late is it ? What o'clock is it ? 
What is your father's name ? 
What is your mother's name ? 
What is your sister's name ? 
What is your brother's name? 
Are you a good boy ? 
Can you read this book ? 
Is it right to tell a lie ? 
Is it right to speak the truth 2 
Is it wrong to tell a lie ? 

74th EXERCISE. 
Abbreviation of Words. 

Scholar. What is the meaning of Mr ? 

Teacher. It means Master, and is a contraction or abbre- 
viation of the word, by leaving out all the letters except the 
first and last, thus — Master, M — — r, and Mr. 

S. What does Mrs. mean ? 

T. It means Mistress, and is made in the same way as 
Master, by leaving out some of the letters, thus — Mistress, 
M — r— s, Mrs. 

S. What is Messrs ? 

T. It is the contraction of the French word Messieurs,, 
and means the same as Masters. It is formed by omitting 
some of the letters, thus — Messieurs, Mess — rs, Mess™. 

S. I saw on a sign the words Hyer, Bremner & Co. What 
does Co. mean ? 

7'. It means Company, or that there is some other per- 
son or persons in company with Messrs. Hyer and Bremner, 
but whose name is not mentioned. If you had a wish to 



L 



247 



1 



(lAth EXERCISE.) 

write a letter to them, to buy some goods of them, you 
should direct your letter thus : 

Messrs. Hyer, Bremner & Co. 

Merchants, 

New- York. 
S. What is the meaning of Dr ? 

T. It means Debtor, and is formed thus — Debtor, D — r, 
Dr. In the same way Cr. means Creditor, C — r, Cr. One 
is set is opposition to the other. 

Suppose you buy some goods of Messrs. Hyer, Bremner 
& Co. they will make you Dr. to them in their hooks for 
the value of the goods, and when you pay the money, tbey 
will give you Credit for the money you pay, by which they 
will be no longer your Creditor, Cr. Thus the account will 
be closed and balanced. 

Dr. Richard Sip, in account with Hyer, Bremner & Co. Cr. 



1820. 

May 

1st, 



To Merchandise, 



D!s. 


Cts. 


1820. 


100 


00 


Aug. 
1st, 



By Cash, 



DIs. 
100 



Cts. 
00 



T. I must explain to you that Dr. also means Doctor, and 
is sometimes written Doctr. and Doct. thus: Doctor, Doct-r, 
Doctr, Doct: D — r, Dr. If you was writing a letter to a 
Doctor, you should direct as follows : 

Dr. Samuel L. Mitchill, 

President of the Institution, 
for the Deaf and Dumb, 
New-York. 

S. I took a letter to one of the Directors of this Institu- 
tion, directed thus: 

The Revd. James Milnor, 

Vice-President of the Institution 
for the Deaf and Dumb, 
27 Beekman street, 

New-York. 



[ *» 8 ] 

(74th EXERCISE.) 

S. What does Revd. mean ? 

T. It is a title of respect to the teachers of the gospel. 
It is also applicable to them from the purity of their lives, 
and their exemplary conduct, which give us cause to reve- 
rence them. 

S. Must these words always he used so, and not written 
at full length ? 

T. No. They are sometimes written at full length, but 
generally for shortness sake contracted. It is necessary to 
know the use of these contractions, as you cannot direct a 
letter without them. Mr. is used is directing a letter to a 
gentleman, as 

Mr. Silvanus Miller, 

Vice-President of the 

Deaf and Dumb Institution, 
New- York. 
The word is written at full length, when a letter is di- 
rected to a young man or boy, as 

Master William Niblo, 

At the School for the Deaf and Dumb, 

New-York. 
Mrs. is used in directing a letter to a Lady, if she is mar- 
ried, as 

Mrs. Ellen Galatian, 

Broad-street, 

New- York. 
Mrs. must not be used in directing to an unmarried lady 
or a girl, as 

Miss Mary Stansbury, 
Assistant Teacher, 

School for the Deaf and Dumb, 
New-York, or 
Miss Mary Rose, 

Asylum for the Deaf and Dumb, 
72 Chatham-street, 

New-York. 



E 



249 



3 



(74/A EXERCISE.) 

8. Arc tliere any other words contracted 2 
T. Yes, there are a great many words which may be con- 
tracted at the pleasure of the person who uses them, as 
for Phvsician Col. for Colonel 

Capt. - Captain 
Lieut. - Lieutenant 
Asst. - Assistant 
St. - Saint 

St. - Street. 



Physn. 

Piest. 

Instn. 

Hon. 

Govr. 

Genl. 



Physician 

President 

Institution 

Honorable 

Governor 

General 



There are also a number of words in which letters are 
omitted to shorten them, and which are generally used in 
poetry, as 



Th> 


for 


• the 


O'er 


for 


over 


tho' 


- 


though 


cv'ry 


- 


every 


altho' 


- 


although 


can't 


- 


cannot 


'mong 


- 


among 


'em 


- 


them 


ma'am 


- 


madam 


thro' 


- 


through 


e'en 


- 


even 








Two or 


more words in poetry, are : 


also contracted into 


one, as 












I've 


for 


I have 


Lct'm 


for 


Let them 


I'd 


- 


I would, I had 


shan't 


- 


shall not 


'tis 


- 


it is 


d'ye 


- 


do ye 


'twas 


- 


it was 


for't 


- 


for it 


I'm 


- 


I am 


thou'st 


- 


thou hast 


'twill 


- 


it will 


they've 


- 


they have 


I'll 


- 


I will 


thou'dst 


- 


thou hadst 


might'nl 




might hot 


they'll 


- 


they will 


may'nt 


- 


may not 


they'd 


- 


they had 


he'd 


- 


he had 


they're 


- 


they are 


here's 


- 


here is 


thou'lt 


- 


thou wilt 


he's 


- 


he is 


'twere 


- 


it were 


she's 


- 


she is 


thou'rt 


- 


thou art 


i'thc 


- 


in the 


that's 


- 


that is 


in't 


- 


in it 


there's 


- 


there is 


let's 


_ 


let us 


was't 


- 


was it 



nh 



[ 



250 



J 



(74th EXERCISE.) 



We've 


for 


We have 


Who's 


for 


Who is 


we'd 


- 


we had 


you've 


- 


you have 


we're 


- 


»e are 


you'd 


- 


you had 


where's 


- 


where is 


you're 


- 


you are 


what's 


- 


what is 


you'll 


- 


you will 


won't 


— 


will not 









M. When we write or speak the time of day or night, we 
always use contracted words, for example : 
It is twelve o'clock, means It is twelve of the clock. 
It is ten o'clock at night, " It is ten of the clock at night. 
What o'clock is it ? «« What hour of the clock is it ? 

What time o'night is it ? ** What time of the night is it ? 
What time o'day is it ? '* What time of the day is it ? 



75th EXERCISE. 
ELLIPSIS IN SENTENCES. 

1. OF THE ARTICLE. 



means 
« 



A man and boy, 

A boy and girl, 

An apple and orange, « 

A lime, lemon and fig, « 

A peach and pear, " 

The fire and candle, " 

The dust, noise and smoke, 

The sun, moon and stars, 

2. ELLIPSIS 



A man and a boy. 

A boy and a girl. 

An apple and an orange. 

A lime, a lemon and a fig. 

A peach and a pear. 

The fire and the candle. 

The dust, the noise and the 

smoke. 
The sun, the moon and the 

stars. 

OF THE NOUN. 



John went, and John returned without him. 

John went and returned without him. 

James and Mary saw him go, and James and Mary heard 
him speak. 

James and Mary saw him go, and heard him speak. 

The fisherman caught, the fisherman cleaned, and the fisher- 
man fried a fisk in half an hour. 



[ 251 ] 
(75lh EXERCISE.) 

The fisherman caught, cleaned, and fried a fish in half an 
hour. 

The child was lost, and the child was found hefore I knew it. 

The child was lost, and found hefore I knew it. 

The house was set on fire, and the house was burnt down in 
half an hour. 

The house was set on fire, and burnt down in half an hour. 

The child screamed, and the child cried with pain. 

The child screamed and cried with pain. 

The horse was struck with lightning, and the horse was 
killed. 

The horse was struck with lightning and killed. 

The cows are milked in the morning, and the cows are milked 
in the evening. 

The cows are milked in the morning and in the evening. 

The indulgence of his father, and the indulgence of his mo- 
ther, ruined him. 

The indulgence of his father and mother ruined him. 

It was the ruin of himself, and the ruin of his friend. 

It was the ruin of himself and friend. 

He was grieved at the death of his father, and the death of 
his mother. 

He was grieved at the death of his father and mother. 

This is a Deaf boy and a Dumb boy. 

This is a Deaf and Dumb boy. 

These are Deaf children and Dumb children. 

These are Deaf and Dumb children. 

3. ELLIPSIS OF THE PRONOUN. 

I love and J respect my teachers. 

I love and respect my teachers. 

He eats and he drinks enormously. 

He eats and drinks enormously. 

He and she eat, and he and she sleep too much. 

He and she eat and sleep too much. 

They beat him and they bruised him very much. 

They beat and bruised him very much. 



[ 252 ] 

(75th EXERCISE.) 

We asked and we received his blessing. 

We asked and received his blessing. 

We ate, tee drank and roe slept at Brooklyn. 

We ate, drank and slept at Brooklyn. 

The preacher whom you saw is much respected. 

The preacher you saw is much respected. 

The man whom you saw was intoxicated. 

The man you saw was intoxicated. 

The young lady whom you saw was married. 

The young lady you saw was married. 

The tree which I cut down was dead. 

The tree I cut down was dead. 

The melon which you bought is not ripe. 

The melon you bought is not ripe. 

4. ELLIPSIS OF THE ADJECTIVE. 

I have several brothers and several sisters. 

I have several brothers and sisters. 

I saw many women and many children in the street. 

I saw many women and children in the street. 

I see a little boy and a Utile girl walking together. 

I see a little boy and girl walking together. 

A kind and indulgent father, and a kind and indulgent 

mother. 
A kind and indulgent father and mother. 
That is a cheap and good hat, and a cheap and good coat. 
That is a cheap and good hat and coat. 
An industrious man and an industrious woman. 
An industrious man and woman. 
An obedient son and an obedient daughter. 
An obedient son and daughter. 
An agreeable man and an agreeable woman. 
An agreeable man and woman. 
A disagreeable man and a disagreeable woman. 
A disagreeable man and woman. 



L 253 ] 
(75th EXERCISE.) 

5. ELLIPSIS OF THE VERB, 

You arc older than I am. 

You are older than I. 

He is younger than I am. 

He is younger than I. 

The fish was caught, was cleaned, and was fried in half an 

hour. 
The fish was caught, cleaned, and fried in half an hour. 
I saw him go and saw him return. 
I saw him go and return. 
I am stronger than he is. 
I am stronger than he. 

To be rude and to be uncivil is unworthy a gentleman. 
To be rude and uncivil is unworthy a gentleman. 
The Deaf and Dumb cannot hear and cannot speak. 
The Deaf and Dumb cannot hear and speak. 
They told you and told me he was dead. 
They told you and me he was dead. 
I was desired and he was desired. 
I and he were desired. 

I feared he would be drowned, and she would be frightened. 
I feared he would be drowned and she frightened. 
I was apprehensive he would be killed, and she would be 

killed too. 
I was apprehensive he would be killed, and she too. 
I believe he was in danger, and she was in danger also. 
I believe he was in danger, and she also. 
He died and she died the same day. 
He and she died the same day. 
John went and James went in the same boat. 
John and James went in the same boat. 
He shall return and you shall return together. 
He and you shall return together. 
Crabs are good to eat and lobsters are good to eat. 
Crabs and lobsters are good to eat. 
Horses are not good to cat, and dogs are not good to eat. 
Horses and dogs are not good to eat. 



[ 25 4 ] 

(15th EXERCISE.) 
6. ELLIPSIS OF THE ADVERB. 

It was well spoken and well intended. 

It was well spoken and intended. 

He designed it badly and executed it badly. 

He designed and executed it badly. 

It was wisely planned and wisely executed. 

It was wisely planned and executed. 

Fortunately he, and fortunately she escaped. 

Fortunately he and she escaped. 

He was bravely supported on the right, and bravely on the 

left. 
He was bravely supported on the right and on the left. 
It was obstinately held and obstinately defended. 
It was obstinately held and defended. 
Fortunately for him and fortunately for his brother. 
Fortunately for him and his brother. 
Fortunately for himself and fortunately for his friends, he 

arrived in safety. 
Fortunately for himself and friends, he arrived in safety. 

7. ELLIPSIS OF THE CONJUNCTION. 

Let him see, and hear, and learn and remember. 

Let him see, hear, learn and remember. 

If you are willing, and if she is willing, and if they ara 

willing. 
If you are willing, and she is willing, and they are willing. 
Unless you stay, and unless she stays, I cannot go. 
Unless you stay, and she stays, I cannot go. 
It appears true, yet I doubt, yet she doubts, and yet we all 

doubt. 
It appears true, yet I doubt, she doubts, and we all doubt. 
You must go, or I must go, or he must go. 
You must go, I must go, or he must go. 
I dressed myself, then I washed, then I ate my breakfast, 

and then I went to school. 
I dressed myself, then I washed, ate my breakfast, and went 

to school. 



[ *55 ] 

(75th EXERCISE.) 
8. ELLIPSIS OF THE PREPOSITION. 

I divided the nuts between Mary, between John, and betweeii 

James. 
I divided the nuts between Mary, John and James. 
I gave the apples to Richard, to William and to Joseph. 
I gave the apples to Richard, William and Joseph. 
I reserved some cherries for Phebe,yor Sally, Scfor Maria. 
I reserved some cherries for Phebe, Sally and Maria. 
I took away the marbles from Henry ,from Peter, andyrom 

John. 
I took away the marbles from Henry, Peter and John. 
We looked in the bed-room, in the cellar, in the garret, and 

all over. 
We looked in the bed-room, the cellar, the garret, and all 

over. 
Give an apple to Sally, to Maria, and to Eveline. 
Give an apple to Sally, Maria and Eveline. 

9. ELLIPSIS OF PART OF A SENTENCE. 

This boy is diligent, attentive and studious, and it is hoped 
ever will be diligent, attentive and studious. 

This boy is diligent, attentive and studious, and it is hoped 
ever will be so. 

This girl ever was kind and attentive, and I hope ever will 
be kind and attentive to her sick mother. 

This girl ever was, and I hope ever Avill be kind and atten- 
tive to her sick mother. 

This boy ever was lazy, idle and careless, but I hope he will 
not continue to be la&y, idle and careless. 

This boy ever was lazy, idle and careless, but I hope he 
will not continue so. 

I remember he told me, and J remember he told James not 
to fight. 

I remember he told me and James not to fight. 

These girls always have been studious, and J hope these girl* 
alwavs will be studious. 



[ **« J 
(75th EXERCISE.) 

These girls always have been, and I hope always will be 
studious. 

10. ELLIPSIS INT ASKIXG QUESTIONS. 

Tell me the person, who conies there ? 

Who comes there ? 

Tell me the person, who arc you ? 

Who are you ? 

Tell me the person, whose book is that ? 

Whose book is that ? ^ 

Tell me the person, in whom do you confide I' 

In whom do you confide ? 

Tell me, which of those hats is yours ? 

Which of those hats is yours ? 

Tell me the thing, what shall I do to be saved ? 

What shall I do to be saved ? 

Tell me the time, when will you go ? 

When will you go ? 

Tell me the time, when are you going ? 

When are you going ? 

Tell me from what place'did he bring them ? 

Whence did he bring them ? 

Tell me to what place is he going ? 

Whither is he going ? 

Tell me in what manner are you going to Albany ? 

How are you going to Albany ? 

Is it possible that I can go down stairs ? 

Can I go down stairs ? 

Tell me, shall I go to bed with your permission ? 

Shall I go to bed Z 

Tell me, may I have your permission to take a ride ? 

May I take a ride ? 

Tell me, is it true ? 

Is it true ? 

Tell me, are they all satisfied I 

Are they all satisfied ? 



[ 257 ] 

{15th EXERCISE.) 
11. ELLIPSIS IN ANSWERING QUESTIONS. 

((ueslion. Who comes there ? 

Ansiver. One of the Directors comes there. 

One of the Directors. 
(£. What is his name ? 
A. His name is Mr. Stanford. 

Mr. Stanford. 
Q. Where do you live ? 
A. / live in New-York. 

In New-York. 
<£. What street do you live in? 
A. / live in Chatham-street. 

In Chatham street. 
^. Where is your father ? 
A. Mij father is in Albany. 

In Albany. 
(£. What school do you go to ? 
A. I go to the Deaf and Dumb school. 

To the Deaf and Dumb school. 
(£. Who teaches you at the Deaf and Dumb school ? 
A. Mr. H. Loofhorrow teaches, Miss Mary Stansbury 
teaches, and Mr. Clinton Mitchill teaches us. 

Mr. Loof borrow, Miss Stansbury, and Mr. Mitchill. 
(£. W T here is the Deaf and Dumb school ? 
A. The Deaf and Dumb school is in the New- York Institu- 
tion in Chamber-street. 

In the New-York Institution in Chamber-street. 
({. Where are you going ? 
A. I am going to school. 

To school. 
<£. What do you learn at school ? 
A. I learn to read and write. 

To read and write. 
Q. How do you read when you cannot speak ? 
A. I read by signs. 

By signs. 

ii 



[ 253 ] 

(75tk EXERCISE.) 

Q. Do you wish to go to school to learn ? 
A. Yes, Sir, J wish to go to school to learn. 

Yes, Sir. 
((. Do you go to church on Sunday ? 
A. Yes, Sir, I go to church on Smiday. 

Yes, Sir. 
Q. What do you hear at church on Sunday ? 
A. I am Deaf and Dumb, and cannot hear, when I go to 
church on Sunday. 

I am Deaf and Dumb, and cannot hear. 
<%. What do you think when you are in church ? 
A. I think th<* preacher prays and preaches for all of us, 
when I am in church. 

I think the preacher prays and preaches for all of us. 

76th EXERCISE. 

Quarters of the Globe and Nations. 

Asia. Europe. Africa. America. 

The earth on which we live is divided into Tour parts. 

They are named Asia, Europe, Africa and America. 

Asia is a very large country, and contains a great many 
inhabitants. It was probably first peopled by mankind. 

Asia is divided into many parts, some of which are inha- 
bited by powerful nations. 

The principal divisions or countries of Asia, are China, 
Hindostan, Persia, Arabia and Turkey. 

The inhabitants of these countries are named Chinese, 
Hindostanees, Persians, Arabians and Turks. 

There are very few Christians in Asia. 

Europe is not so large a country as Asia. The principal 
countries in Europe are Russia. Germany, Austria, France, 
Spain, England, &c. The inhabitants are accordingly named 
Russians, Germans, Austrians, Frenchmen, Spaniards and 
Englishmen. 

Most of the inhabitants of Europe are Christians. 



[ 250 ] 

(76th EXERCISE.) 

Africa is the country of the negroes. 

America is an extensive country, and is divided into 
North and South Jlmerica. 

We live in North America. The part in which we live 
is called Fredonia, or the United States of America. 

Part of North America belongs to England, part to Spain, 
and a part of it is inhabited by Indians. The remaining 
part belongs to us. 

That part of North America which belongs to us, is called 
Fredonia, and is divided into 24 States or parts, as follows : 

1. Maine, 13. North Carolina, 

2. New-Hampshire, 14. South Carolina, 

3. Massachusetts, 15. Georgia, 

4. Vermont, 16. Ohio, 

5. Rhode-Island, 17. Indiana, 

6. Connecticut, 18. Illinois, 

7. New-York, 19. Kentucky, 

8. New- Jersey, 20. Tennessee, 

9. Pennsylvania, 21. Louisiana, 

10. Delaware, 22. Mississippi, 

11. Maryland, 23. Alabama, 

12. Virginia, 24. Missouri. 

We live in the State of New-York. It is an extensive 
and large state, and contains nearly a million (1,000,000) 
of inhabitants. There are several cities in the State, of 
which the city of New-York is the largest. It contains 
about one hundred and twenty thousand (120,000) people. 
The New-York Institution for the instruction of the Deaf 
and Dumb, is in this city. 

South America belongs to the Spaniards and the Portu- 
guese, who came from Europe, and the Indians, whom they 
found in the country. 



[ 260 ] 

77th EXERCISE. 

Exercise to explain the Words Animals, Beings, 
Things, Objects and Kinds, by way of question and 
answer between the Teacher and Scholar. 

Animal, Being, Thing, Object, Kind. 
Auimals, beings, things, objects, kinds. 

Scholar. What is an animal ? 

Teacher. An animal is a being that has life. 

S. How many animals are there ? 

T. I cannot tell how many animals there are. 

There are a great many animals. 

There are different kinds of animals. 

What is a horse ? S. A horse is an animal. 
T. Why is it an animal ? 
S. Because it has life. 
T. What is a bird ? S. It is an animal. 
T. What is a frog ? S. It is an animal. 
T. What is a fish ? S. An animal. 
T. What is a butterfly ? S. An animal. 
T. What is a worm? S. An animal. 
T. What is a hat ? 

S. I do not know. It is not an animal. 
T. Why is it not an animal? 
S. Because it has no life. 
T. If it is not an animal, what is it then ? 
S. I do not know. 

T. I will tell you. A hat is a thing. 
S. What is a thing ? 
T. A thing is an object without life. 

What is a shoe ? 8. A shoe is a thing. 
T. What is an axe ? S. It is a thing. 
T. What is a table ? S. A thing. 
T. What is a being P S. I do not know. 
T. A being is an object that has life. 
S. Then a horse is a being. 
T. Yes, all animals are beings. 



[ 261 ] 
(Jllh EXERCISE.) 

S. What is an object ? 

T. A tabic is an object, a horse is an object. 

Every being is an object. 

Every thing is an object. 
S. What is a tree ? 
T. A tree has life, and grows, and is therefore a being. 

It is also an object. 
S. What is a potato ? 
S. It may be called a thing. 

When planted and growing, it is a being. 

And as every being is an object, a potato is also an 
object. 
S. Show me some other beings and things. 
T. I will arrange them for you. 

Write on the slate the word man. 

What is a man ? S. A man is a being. 
T. What is an ox ? S. It is a being. 
T. Write the word ox under man. 

A man is a being, an ox is a being. 

They are beings. 

Now write the word being over them. 

Thus we will make a column of beings. 

Beings. 




T. Now write opposite to man, the word boot. 

What is a boot ? 
S. It is a thing. 

T. How do you know it is a thing ? 
S. It has no life. 
T. Write under boot, the word shovel. 

What is a shovel ? 
S. It is a thing. 
T. A boot is a thing, a shovel is a thing. 

They are things. 



[ 202 J 

{lllk EXERCISE.) 

Write the word things over them. 
Thus we will make a column of things. 

Things. 

Boot 
Shovel 
Stone 
T. Recollect that a being is an object, and a thing is an 

object. 
S. Then beings and things are objects. 
T. Yes, you are correct. So we will arrange them. 
Beings. Things. 

Man Boot 

Ox Shovel 

T. Thus make two columns. 

Write beings in one, and things in the other. 
T. In which column will you put a bear ? 
S. In the column of beings. 
T. Write it there. 

What is a stone ? S. It is a thing. 
T. That is right. Now continue the columns. 
Add all the beings and things you know. 
Write the word Objects over them, thus : 
Objects. 



Beings. 
Man 


Things. 
Boot 


ox 


shovel 


bear 


stone 


horse 


hat 


tree 


shoo 


bird 


axe 


frog 
rose 


table 
chair 


grass 


book 


pink 


cup 



[ 263 ] 

{lllh exebciseO 

T. Thus you see that beings and things are all objects. 

Objects have life, or are without life. 

Ohjects with life are called animate objects. 

Objects without life are called inanimate objects. 

These make two kinds of ohjects. 
X. Recollect I told you that an animal is a being with life. 
S. Then beings are all animals. 

T. No. An animal has life, and can move from place to 
place. 

A tree is a being, and eannot move itself. 
8. I understand ; there arc two beings. 
T. No. There are two kinds of beings. 

An animal is one kind of being ; 

A stone is another kind of being. 

These make two kinds of beings. 

A horse is called an animate being. 

A stone is called an inanimate being. 

A tree is also called a vegetable being: 

But it belongs to the kind called animate beings. 

Objects then may also be arranged as beings. 

Beings. 



Animate. Inanimate. 

Man Boot 

ox shovel 

bear stone 

tree chair 

fish book 

bird paper 

bug wine 

rat water 

S. Who made all these kinds of animals? 
T. God created them. 

We must give unto God, the praise and the glory, for 
his wisdom, power and goodness in creating and pre- 
serving all things for our use. 



[ 264 ] 

78th EXERCISE. 
ANIMALS CLASSED. 

T. Animate beings are arranged under the head of Animals. 
Animals are very numerous. 
They constitute the animal kingdom. 
The animal kingdom embraces many kinds of animals. 
They are divided into six classes, as follows : 

1st Class. Quadrupeds. 

2d Class. Birds. 

. 3d Class. Amphibious Animals. 

Animals. <,.,_,. ^ 

4th Class. Fishes. 

5th Class. Insects. 

L 6th Class. Worms. 

S. What is a Class P 

T. A Class is any number of beings, objects or things, col- 
lected together for a particular purpose. 
Count the scholars in this room. 
How many are there ? 
S. I have counted them ; there are twenty. 
T. These twenty scholars make a Class. 
S. Are animals scholars ? 
T. No. These twenty scholars, I say, make a class. 

They are classed together, because they learn the same 

lessons. 
Parts of the body make a class of words belonging to 

one object. 
The furniture of a house makes a class of things belong- 
ing to that house. 
A number of animals make a class of beings having 
some general resemblance. 
S. What is a quadruped ? 

T. A quadruped belongs to the first class of animals. 
S. Is a snake a quadruped ? 
T. No. A quadruped is an animal with four legs. 



[ 265 ] 
(78/^ EXERCISE.) 

S. I understand : a horse, a cow, a hog, a dog, a cat, are 

quadrupeds. 
T. Yes, animals with four legs make the Jirst class of 

hcings named quadrupeds. 
S. I know what birds are ; they make the second class of 

animals. 
T. Birds have two legs, two wings, and are covered with 
feathers. They have a bill, and can fly in the air 
with their wings. 
S. What arc amphibious animals P 
T. They make a third class of animals. 

Some of them can live and breathe upon land or in the 

water. 
This class includes reptiles and serpents. 
They all lay eggs. 

Some have legs, and some have no legs. 
S. What is a reptile P 
T. A reptile is an amphibious animal with four short legs. 

Reptiles crawl about upon the earth, or in the water. 
S. What is a serpent P 

T. A serpent is an amphibious animal without legs. 
Serpents are named snakes. 
There are different kinds of snukes. 
This serpent is called a black-snake. 
That serpent is called a rattle-snake. 
S. I know what fishes are ? 
T. Fishes make the fourth class of animals. 
Fishes live and swim in the water. 
They swim by means of fins. 
Fishes are generally covered with scales. 
S. W T hat are insects ? 

T. The fifth class includes all the little animals called in- 
sects, which annoy us in summer. 
Bugs, flies, ants, fleas, moschetoes and spiders are insects* 
Insects livG only in warm weather. They die in winter. 

They have many legs. 

Kk 



[ 



2CG 



3 



(78/A EXERCISE.) 

8. 1 saw a worm on the ground. 

It belongs to the sixth class. 
T. Yes. There are different kinds of worms. 

They crawl in moist places and are mute. 

They have no legs. 

Some worms live in the ground. 

Some live in the bodies of other animals. 
■S. Who made all these animals ? 
T. God the Creator of all things. 

We must admire his works, and adore him for his 
goodness. 

Now let us examine some of the animals of the different 
Classes. 



79th EXERCISE. 
First Class of Animals. 





Quadrupeds. 




Antelope 


Deer 


Musk 


Ant-eater 


Dromedary 


Mouse 


Armadillo 


Dormouse 


Otter 


Ape 


Elephant 


Opossum 


Bison 


Fox 


Porcupine 


Buffalo 


Goat 


Rat 


Bull 


Hog 


Rhinoceros 


Badger 


Hedgehog 


Racoon 


Beaver 


Hare 


Rabbit 


Baboon 


Horse 


Sheep 


Bear 


Jerboa 


Squirrel 


Cat 


Kangaroo 


Sloth 


Cow 


Leopard 


Tiger 


Camel 


Marmot 


Wolf 


Cavy 


Marten 


Weasel 


Dog 


Mole 


Zebra 



[ 267 ] 
(79/^ EXERCISE.) 

T. Have you seen any of these animals ? 

S. Yes, Sir. 

T. Which of them have you seen ? 

Count them, and tell how many. 
S. I have seen that one, that one, that one. 
T. How many have you seen in all ? 
S. I have seen seventeen of them. 
T. Which are those you have seen ? 

Write their names on the slate. 

Those which you have not seen I will show you. 
S, I have seen 

An ape A hog 

a hull a horse 

a bear a mole 

a cat a mouse 

a cow a rat 

a camel a rabbit 

a dog a sheep 

a fox a squirrel 

a goat an elephant 

T. Where have you seen these quadrupeds ? 

8, I have seen them in a book. 

T* Then you only saw the figures of them. 
Do you wish to see the others ? 

8. Yes, Sir. 

T. Here then we have the figures of them. 

I will show you some of them afterwards in the 
American Museum, where Mr. John Scudder 
has collected a great number of animals, and 
stuffed them, and they appear as if they were 
alive. 



[ 208 ] 
(79//t EXERCISE.) 



Antelope 




Armadillo 



Ant-eater 




Bison 





Buffalo 



Badger 




Beaver 





[ 2G9 ] 

(79th EXERCISE.) 
Cavy or Guinea-pig Deer 




Dromedary 



^*&f%% 




Dormouse 




Elephant 




^wm^ 



Hedgehog 





Jerboa 




Kangaroo 




[ 270 J 
(79//« EXERCISE.) 



Leopard 




Marten 



Marmot 




Otter 





Opossum 



Porcupine 




Rhinoceros 






L 271 ] 

(79th EXERCISE.) 
Sloth Tiger 





- -^&-~ 



Wolf 



Weasel 





^■^'illlllfeui^Ky" 



Zebra 




[ 272 ] 

(79lh EXERCISE.) 

T. Some of these animals are very large. 

Some of them are very small. 

Some of them arc strong. 

Some of them are weak. 

Some are ferocious. Some are gentle. 

Some are useful to man. 

Some are useless to man. 
S. Which of them are largo ? 
X. The elephant, the bison, and the buffalo, are large and 

strong. 
S. Which of them are small ? 

T. The cavy and jerboa, are small and weak animals. 
iS. Which are the ferocious animals? 
T. The leopard, the tiger, and the wolf are ferocious. 
S. Which of the animals are gentle ? 
T. The dromedary and the cavy are gentle. 
S. Which are the useful ones ? 
T. The elephant, the beaver, the deer and others. 
S. Which are the useless ones ? 
T. The armadillo, the hedge-hog, the porcupine, and the 

sloth. 
S. Tell me something more about these animals. 
T. In a future lesson, I will give you some more informa- 
tion about these animals named quadrupeds ; but we 
must now proceed to the second Class of animals. 

80th EXERCISE. 

Second Class of Animals. 

Birds. 

T. Do you recollect what I informed you about birds ? 
S. Yes, Sir. Birds are animals with wings and feathers. 
T. Is that all ? 

S. No, Sir ; they have two legs, a bill, and can fly in the air. 
T. Birds differ from all other animals, by having wings 
and feathers. 



[ 273 ] 

(80/^ EXERCISE.) 

These make it necessary to put them into one class. 
Birds, however, do not all fly. 

The ostrich and cassowary have small wings, and can- 
not fly. 

The auks, and some others, have no feathers in their 

wings. 
They swim on the water and dive for food. 
They live most of their time in the water. 
They go on shore to lay their eggs. 
All kinds of hirds lay eggs. 
Some hirds' eggs are good to eat. 
Birds are very numerous. 
Here are the names of some of them. 

Birds. 



Vulture 


King-fisher 


Auk 


Eagle 


King-bird 


Penguin 


Hawk 


Humming-bird 


Pelican 


Owl 


Goose 


Petrel 


Toucan 


Tame-goose 


Albatross 


Crow 


Wild-goose 


Gull 


Oriole 


Duck 


Flamingo 


Paradise-bird 


Tame-duck 


Crane 


Cuckoo 


Wild-duck 


Ibis 


Wood-pecker 


Swan 


Snipe 


Plover 


Black-bird 


Wren 


Peacock 


Red-bird 


Snow-bird 


Turkey 


Yellow-bird 


Cat-bird 


Pheasant 


Swallow 


Canary-bird 


Quail 


Whip-poor-will 


Blue-jay 


Grous 


Turkey-buzzard 


Parrot 


Guinea-hen 


Hei 


Dove 


Pigeon 


Robin 


Ostrich 


Lark 


Hanging-bird 


Cassowary 


Grosbeak 


Cedar-bird 


Wood-cock 


Blue-bird 


Phebe-bird 
Li 





[ 274 ] 
(80J/i EXERCISE.) 

T. Have you seen any of these birds ? 

8. Yes, Sir. 

T. Which have you seen ? 

S. I have seen that, that, that, &c. 

T. How many ? 

S. I have seen only five. 

T. Write on the slate those you have seen. 

S. I have seen an owl 

an eagle 

a goose 

a duck 

a hen 

M. The goose you saw was a tame-goose. 
The duck you saw was a tame-duck. 
They were once wild, and flew like other birds. 
They were made tame by man. 
Some other birds were wild, and were tamed by man. 
Let us look at the figures of those birds you have not 
seen. 



[ 275 ] 



(80th EXERCISE.) 

Eagle Hawk 




Toucan 




King-fisher 





Crow 




Wood-pecker 




Humming-bird 




[ 2 ™ ] 
(80£/i EXERCISE.) 



Wild-goose 




Swan 




Petrel 




Flamingo 




Wild-duck 




Penguin 




Gull 




Crane 



^wswKRssftvg 




Plover 



t 277 J 
(SOtk EXERCISE.) 



Snipe 




Peacock 




Quail 



&S& 




Guinea-hen 





Grous 




Pigeon 



"•"'miHftWiv 



jav#* 




Grosbeak 



[ 278 ] 
(80/A EXERCISE.) 



Black-bird 




Swallow 




Hanging-bird 




Snow-bird 





Robin 




Blue-jay 




[ 279 ] 
(80/A EXERCISE.) 



Parrot 




Cassowary 




Dove 




Ostrich 




Wood-cock 



Lark 





[ 280 ] 

8 1st EXERCISE. 

Third Class of Animals. 

Amphibious Animals. 

Teacher. Amphibious animals are not so numerous as others. 
They live in retired places. 
They shun the presence of man. 
Some of them are very ugly. 
Some of them are poisonous. 
There are two kinds of them ; reptiles and serpents. 



Amphibious Animals. 



Reptiles. Serpents. 

, Land-tortoise Rattle-snake 

Terrapin Black-snake 

Green-tortoise Spectacle-snake 

Leathery-tortoise Garter-snake 

Crocodile 
Alligator 
Lizard 
Toad 
Bull -frog 

T. Some of these reptiles are good to eat. 

The terrapin and green-tortoise are excellent food. 
Combs are made of tortoise-shell. 
Let us look at some of the amphibious animals. 
Some of them live in the water, and some on land. 



[ 231 ] 

(&lst EXF.RCISE.) 
AMPHIBIOUS ANIMALS. 
Land-tortoise Terrapin 




Green-tortoise 




Leathery-tortoise 




Crocodile 



Alligator 




Lizard 



Bull-fro« 




m m 



[ 282 ] 
(81st EXERCISE.) 

Rattle-snake Black-snake 




Garter- snake 




82d EXERCISE. 

Fourth 

Gymnotus or 

Electric Eel 

Wolf-fish 

Sword-fish 

Saw-fish 

Cod-fish 

Dolphin 

Dory 

Plaice 
Sole 

T. Do you know a fish when you see it ? S. Yes, Sir. 
T. Have you often seen fishes. S. Yes, Sir, 
T. Where have you seen them ? 
S. I have seen them in the river. 



Class of Anin 


wis. 


Fishes. 




Perch 


Shad 


Striped-bass 


Herring 


Sea-bass 


Mackerel 


Weak fish 


Sturgeon 


Black-fish 


Killiiisl. 


Gurnard 


Trout 


Salmon 


Shark 


Pike 


Sting-ray 


Flying-fish 


Torpedo 



[ 283 ] 

(82(1 EXERCISE.) 
T. Have you seen them out of the water ? 
S. Yes, Sir ; I have taken them with a pin-hook. 
T. Those were small fishes, and are called killifish. 

Have you seen any others ? 
8. Yes, Sir; I have seen large fishes in the market. 
T. What have you noticed in fishes? 
8. They cannot live out of the water. 

They die in the air. 
T. Have they any legs ? 
S. No, Sir ; they have fins. 

T. Where are their arms ? S. They have no arms. 
X. How many wings have fishes? 
S. They have no wings. 
T. Are fishes covered with feathers ? 
8. No, Sir; they have scales. 

T. Now ohserve the difference between quadrupeds, birds, 
amphibious animals and fishes. 

They are all animals. 

Some of them are the largest beings in existence. 

What is a fish ? 
S. A fish is a being that lives in the water. 
T. A frog lives in the water. Is a frog a fish ? 
S. A frog is an amphibious animal. 

It lives sometimes in the water, and sometimes out of 
the water. 
T. A penguin lives and swims in the water, and dives under 

the water. Is a penguin a fish ? 
S. A penguin is a bird ; it is covered with feathers, and has 

wings. 
T. You say that fishes have no legs. 

Then fishes cannot be quadrupeds. 

What then is a fish ? 
S. I know a fish when I see it. 

I cannot tell you what it is. 
T. Is it an animal ? 
S. Yes, Sir ; it is an animal. 



[ 284 ] 

(82rf EXERCISE.) 
S. I thought you wanted to know what kind of an animal 

it is? 
T. Yes, I did ; and as you arc at a loss, I will inform you. 
A fish is an animal that has cold and red blood. 
It lives in the water. 
It cannot live out of the water. 
It swims in the water. 
It breathes by means of gills. 
It is covered with scales or slime. 
It has fins instead of legs and arms. 
T. Thus you sec that all animal beings have existence aud 

motion. 
They arc all alike in these respects. 
Therefore they are all named animals. 
These animals, however, have other particulars in which 

they differ. 
They arc therefore put into different classes. 
The animals of each class have some marks in which 

they agree. 
As quadrupeds have all four legs, birds have wings, and 

are covered with feathers. 
Now let us examine some of the different kinds of fishes. 
Fishes differ from all other animals, in having gills, scales 

and fins ; and they are alike in these particulars. 
Hence they are put in a class by themselves. 
Here follows a few of this numerous Class of animals. 



[ 285 ] 

(82d EXERCISE.) 
FISHES. 

Gymnotus, or Electric Eel 



Wolf-fish 




Sword-fish 



Saw-fish 




Cod-fish 



Dolphin 




Sole of N. Y. 



Plaice of N. Y. 




[ 286 j 

(82(1 EXERCISE.) 
Dory of N. Y. Striped-bass of N. Y, 




Sea-bass of N. Y. 



Weak-fish of N. Y. 




Black-fish ofN. Y. 



Gurnard of N. Y. 




Salmon 



Pike 



[ 287 ] 
(82d EXERCISE.) 

Flying-fish of N. Y. Shad of N. Y. 




Spring Herring of N. Y. Spanish Mackerel of N. Y 




Sturgeon 



Killifish 




Trout 



Shark 




[ 288 ] 

(82rf EXERCISE.) 



Sting-ray 



Skate 




Torpedo 




T. These are different kinds of fishes. 

S. Are there no other fishes ? 

T. Yes ; there are a great many others. 

S. Are all fishes good to eat ? 

T. No. Some fishes are poisonous. 

Some are tough and not good to eat. 

Some taste bad and are not good food. 
S. Which of these fishes are good to eat ? 
T. Almost all of them are good to eat. 
S. Which are not good ? 
T. The gymnotus, the wolf-fish, the saw-fish, the shark, 

the sting-ray, and the torpedo. 
S. Did God make all these fishes ? 
T. Yes, God made them all. 

He is great in power, knowledge and goodness. 

He bestows all that we have and enjoy. 

We should love and adore him for his mercy and 
goodness. 



« 




[ 289 ] 






83d EXERCISE 


la 


Fifth 


Class of Animals. 






Insects. 




Beetle 




Miller 


( Hessian Fly 


Lady-bug 




Hawk-moth 


* of America 


Five-fly 




Dragon-fly 


i Wheat Insect 
I of Europe 


Water-beetle 




Wasp 


Coek-roaeh 




Bee 


Louse 


Lantern-fly 




Ant 


Flea 


Grass-hopper 




Fly 


Spider 


Butterfly 




Mosehetoe 


Scorpion 


Moth 




Gad-fly 


Chigre 



\ 



T. Let us look at some of this Class of animals named 
insects. 

They are very numerous. 

They are less than other animals. 

They have many legs. They have no blood. 

Some of them have wings. Some have no wings. 

They love warm weather. 

They do not love cold weather. 

They live and grow in summer. 

Their lives are short. They die in the winter. 
S. Are insects good to eat ? 
T. A few of them are used for food, but they afe not very 

good. 
S. Birds eat them. 

T. Yes. Some birds eat nothing else but insects. 
S. Are they good for nothing else ? 
T. Yes. Some insects are very useful to mankind. 

Other insects are entirely useless to us. 

Many trouble and annoy us, and are very injurious. 
S. Which are useful to us ? 

T. The lady-bug, the Spanish-fly, the bee, the coehineal- 
insect, and the silk-worm. 

Here we have the figures of them. 
Nn 



[ 2M J 

(83rf EXERCISE.) 

USEFUL INSECTS. 
Lady-bug Spanish-fly 





Bee 



Male Cochineal 





Female Cochineal 




Silk-worm 



Silk-worm Moth 




O o 9 O ° O 

o oo o * o 
o o o o 



Silk-ball or Cocoon 





L m j 

(83c? EXERCISE.) 

USEFUL INSECTS. 

Scholar. What can you tell me ahout the lady-bug P 

Teacher. The lady-bug is a pretty little yellow insect, 
sometimes with black spots upon it. It is useful to us, by 
eating the lice that infest plants and flowers. These lice 
are little green insects that are very numerous, and destroy 
the plants and flowers upon which they feed. The lady-bug 
kills and eats them, and in this manner makes itself useful 
to man. 

S. How is that insect named the Spanish-fly useful to us ? 

T. The Spanish-fly is so named, because it is found in 
Spain, although it is found in other countries. It is also 
named the blister-fly. This insect is collected and preserved 
for use as a medicine. The dead insect is ground into a 
powder, and used by physicians as a medicine, and to raise 
a blister on a sick person. 

S. How is a bee useful ? 

T. How is honey made ? 

S. O yes ! I see now. Honey is made by bees. Bees are 
useful insects. 

T. Bees are very industrious little animals. They live 
longer than other insects. Clod has made them useful to 
man, and permits them to live. They work hard all sum- 
mer, and lay up a store of honey to live upon in the winter, 
when it is cold, and there are no flowers for them to suck 
and feed upon. We should work and be industrious like the 
bees, and lay up a store of food for hard times. 

S. What is the cochineal insect ? 

T. It is a very little red insect, that lives upon the 
prickly-pear, and is used for the purpose of making a red or 
scarlet dye. 

S. How is the silk-worm useful ? 

T. The silk-worm makes silk. It is a butterfly or moth, 
and lives upon the mulberry-tree. Its eggs are laid upon 
the leaves, and hatch into little worms or caterpillars, 
which feed upon the leaves. When the caterpillars get their 



[ 



292 



J 



(83fl? EXERCISE.) 

growth, they spin a ball of silk and wind themselves up in 
it. This ball of silk is preserved, and carefully unwound, 
and is then in the state of raw-silk. It is called a cocoon. 
Raw-silk is afterwards spun into silk-thread, and silk-thread 
is then wove into silken-stuff's. 

S. Are these all the useful insects ? 
T. No; there are some others, of which I shall inform 
you at another time. 

S. Now show me some of the useless insects. 
T. Here are some of them, but there are a great many 
more. 

Beetle Hawk-moth 

Water-beetle Dragon-fly 

Fire-fly Wasp 

Lanternaria Spider, &c. 

Butterfly 



USELESS INSECTS. 



Beetle 



Water-beetle 





Lanternaria or Lantern-fly 




Butterfly 




[ 239 ] 
(83d EXERCISE.) 



Phalena or Miller 




Dragon-fly 




Wasp 



Spider 





Sphinx or Hawk-moth 




[ 294 ] 

(83<Z EXERCISE.) 
INJURIOUS INSECTS. 

&. Which arc injurious insects ? 

T. Some of the insects which annoy and injure mankind, 
are the following, viz. 

The Cock-roach The Ilcssian-fly 

The Grass-hopper The "Wheat-insect 
Ants I. ice 

Flies Fleas 

Moschetocs The Chigre 
Moths Bed-hugs 

The Bot-fly The Scorpion 

S. How does the cock-roach injure us ? 

T. The cock-roach is an ugly looking inseet. Jt nmhi- 
plies in great numbers, and infests houses and places where 
bread and flour and other provisions are deposited. They 
creep into holes and corners, and hide themselves in the 
day-time, but at night they crawl out and eat the bread, the 
flour and other food prepared for man. 

S. I have seen grass-hoppers ; they do not hurt any body. 

T. Some of them are harmless, and when they are not 
numerous they do no injury. But sometimes, and in some 
countries, they increase and become so numerous as to eat 
up the grass and grain, and even the leaves of the trees, 
and nothing is left for man or his domestic animals. 

S. Ants are too small to injure us. 

T. Ants are indeed small insects, but they are, neverthe- 
less, capable of doing us injury. The large ants are called 
pismires, and live in rotten wood, and under the ground. 
The small ants rather annoy us than produce any serious 
injury. They get into our pantries, and eat the bread and 
meat left there for us to eat. They are fond of sugar and 
sweetmeats, just like children. Whon small ants get into a 
house, it is difficult to destroy them, they are so small and 
so numerous. 



[ 295 ] 

(83(/ EXERCISE.) 

<S. Flies only bite a little. 

T. In warm weather flies are injurious, by laying their 
eggs on cheese, meat and other food ; and if we do not watch 
them, the eggs will hatch into worms or maggots, and the 
meat will spoil and stink. 

S. How do moschetoes injure us ? 

T. Moschetoes annoy and injure us by their bites. In 
warm and moist weather they are very troublesome, and in 
some places they are so thick, that they make people sick 
by the irritation of their bites. 

S. What can you tell us about that moth ,• it is a little 
butterfly. 

X. Moths are very destructive to cloth and woollen 
clothes. They eat holes in them and spoil them. 

S. What is the bot-fly ? 

T. The bot-fly lays its eggs on the hair of horses legs 
and sides, where they stick fast and look like little yellow 
nits. When the horse licks himself with his tongue, the 
eggs are licked off and swallowed with the grass or hay he 
eats. The eggs or nits, when they get into the horse's 
stomach, hatch into maggots, and as they grow, they eat 
holes into his stomach and kill him. Thus the bot-fly is 
injurious to man by killing his horses. 

S. What is the hessian-fly and the ivheal-insccl ? 

T. The hessian-fly and the wheat -inseel both destroy grain 
when it is growing. The wheat-insect is found in Europe, 
and the hessian-fly in the United States. The first attacks 
the grain in the ear, and the latter eats off the stalk. 

S. I know what lice, fleas and bed-bugs are. 

T. These three kinds of insects rather annoy than injure 
us. They render it necessary for us to be neat and clean 
in our clothes and persons, by means of which we shall avoid 
such bad company. Beggars and others who arc careless 
and dirty in their persons, become infested with lice and 
other vermin. 



E 



290 



] 



(83d EXERCISE.) 

S. What is the chigve, that looks so much like a flea? 

T. It is a kind of flea that is found in warm countries, 
particularly in the West Indies, in dry and sandy places. 
It is injurious to those who go barefooted. The chigres 
jump on the feet of the negroes and (hose who do not wear 
shoes, and being very small, they hury themselves under 
the skin. There they lie till they grow big and lay their 
eggs, and produce swellings and sores of the feet, and some- 
times the feet mortify and the negroes die. 

£. The scorpion is like a spider. 

T. It is somewhat like a spider, but it has a long tail, 
which a spider has not. The bite of the scorpion is poison- 
ous. It is not found in this part of the country, but lives 
in warmer climates. 

These examples, I hope, will serve to give you some idea 

of the great number and variety of created beings which the 

Almighty in his infinite wisdom, has thought proper to call 

into existence. — • — 

INJURIOUS INSECTS. 

Cock-roach Grass-hopper 





Moth 



Moschetoe 





[ 297 ] 
(83C? EXERCISE.) 

Bot-fly Hessian-fly 





Wheat-insect of Europe 



Louse 





Flea 



Chigre 





Bed-bug 




Scorpion 




Oo 



[ 298 ] 

84th EXERCISE. 
Sixth Class of Jlnimals. 
Worms. 
T. The sixth and last class of animals is called worms. 
Worms are generally disgusting objects. Of all the animate 
beings which God created, they are the most imperfect. 
They have neither brain, nostrils nor ears ; nor have they 
feet or fins to assist them in moving from one place to ano- 
ther. They cannot move fast, but crawl about in moist 
places, and are mute. They form a very numerous class of 
living creatures ; but as they live in Hie water, under ground, 
in the bodies of other animals, and in other retired places, 
they are not often seen, nor are they elegant or beautiful, 
or in any way desirable objects to behold. Let us therefore 
leave them, and pass on to consider and examine some of 
the vegetable beings which the Almighty, in his infinite good- 
ness, has created for our use. This will afford a subject 
highly interesting to one who is desirous to examine the 
works of God. 

85th EXERCISE. 
VEGETABLE KINGDOM. 

Scholar. I should be glad to hear you relate something 
concerning the vegetable kingdom. 

Teacher. Come then, let us take a walk into the fields, 
and examine some of the vegetable beings which every- 
where surround us, and which God alone has created. 

S. Where shall we go ? 

T. We will go to that hill, and have a full view of the 
surrounding country. 

The first thing that strikes an observer, in looking around 
on the vegetable creation, is the beautiful green which the 
earth and the trees assume at this season of the year. It is 
now the month of June (1821). The blossoms have fallen 
from the trees, and the fruits begin to ripen. The eye is 
delighted with the verdure of the fields, the meadows, and 
the woods ; and the nostrils are regaled with the delightful 



[ 299 ] 

(85lh EXERCISE.) 
•dour of the flowers which still continue to expand. You 
may observe that the color of the grass and the trees is not 
uniformly the same, but that the shades of green are inter- 
mingled witli a pleasing variety. This makes a view of the 
vegetable kingdom at all times pleasing. 

If (he trees and the grass were of any other color, what 
would he the effect ? 

S. I do not know. 

T. Suppose the fields and the woods were white instead 
of green, how would you like that color ? 

8. Spring and summer would look like winter, and I 
would not like it. 

T. This would not be the only effect of having white 
grass and white trees. The heat would he intolerable, and 
the reflection from the surface of the earth, and the leaves 
of the trees, would oblige us to shun the light of day, and 
seek retirement in our houses, or under the ground. 

S. Suppose then the grass and trees were black, what 
would be the effect ? 

T. All nature would appear dismal, dark and dreary, and 
there would be more cold than heat upon the earth, and we 
should be a miserable set of beings. 

S. Would any other color be proper? 

T. A blue color would be preferable to any otber ; but 
God has adapted our eyes to receive and enjoy the impres- 
sions made upon them by green objects, in preference to any 
other color. 

S. Have you names for these different trees and grass 
which we see ? 

T. Yes. The whole vegetable creation may be divided 
into trees, shrubs or buslies, vines, jloivers and grasses. This 
division does not include the whole of the vegetable beings 
which God has caused to grow, but it will answer to make 
you better acquainted with some of the works of the 
Almighty, which we daily see, without inquiring or reflect- 
ing from whence they came. 



[ 300 ] 

(85th EXERCISE.) 

There are different kinds of trees. Some are called /ru/f- 
trecs, some are called Jlowering-trees, and sonic are called 
forest-trees. The fruit-trees arc very numerous, and grow 
in different countries. Apple-trees, peach-trees, pear-trees, 
plum-trees, cherry-trees, and some others, grow in this part 
of the country, and bear fruit in abundance. Orange-trees, 
lemofc-trees, lime-trees and fig-trees, grow in warmer coun- 
tries. 

Some trees only bear blossoms or flowers, and are planted 
about houses for ornament, and the beauty and fragrance of 
their flowers, and these are called Jlowering-trees. The 
locust-tree, the dogwood-trcc, the magnolia and the tulip- 
tree grow here. 

The forest-trees are those which grow in the woods, and 
are cut down to burn, and to make timber to build houses, 
barns, mills and ships. Among these growing in our coun- 
try are the oak-free, the pine-tree, the cedar-tree and many 
others, which are applied to different uses. 

Bushes are those kinds of vegetable beings which do not 
grow high, nor large like trees, but have numerous small 
branches, and are cultivated in gardens, for the fruit or 
the flowers which they produce. We have currant-buslies, 
gooseberry bushes, raspberry bushes, which bear fruit ; and 
we have rose-bushes, lilach-bushcs, snow-ball-bushes, and 
many others which produce flowers. These bushes are some- 
times named shrubs ; and when many of them are planted 
in gardens and around houses, the whole are included in the 
general name of shrubbery. 

The vines are very numerous, and like bushes or shrubs, 
are cultivated for their flowers or their fruits. Vines do 
not grow erect like trees and bushes, because they have not 
strength to support themselves in that position without; 
assistance. They either cling to trees, as the grape-vine, 
or run upon the ground, as the pumpkin-vine. Water- 
melons and musk-melons grow on vines which run upon the 
ground, and the sweet-potato is the root of another vine 
which does not cling to trees. The trumpet-flower is a 



[ aoi ] 

(85//* EXERCISE.) 
vine which bears red blossoms shaped like a trumpet. This 
vine is planted by the side of houses, and it climbs to the 
very top, by sticking to the walls as it grows. The morn- 
ing glory is a vine which is planted in gardens for orna- 
ment. It bears blue blossoms shaped like a bell, and the 
blossoms expand in the morning, and elose before noon. 
Beans and peas grow upon vines which are planted for the 
seeds they produce, and which we use for food. 

The numerous flowers which adorn the woods, the mea- 
dows and gardens, have at all times, and in all countries, 
attracted the attention of man. Some delight us by their 
beauty and size ; some by the elegance of their colors, and 
some by their delightful odours. These are so numerous 
that we must take another opportunity to walk into a gar- 
den and examine llicm. 

The grass we tread upon, and which you sec growing in 
abundance around and before you, and though not adorned 
with flowers, nor tall and strong like trees, is notwithstand- 
ing worthy of your attention and consideration. Horses, 
cows, sheep, and other domestic animals live upon grass, 
and we mow or cut it with a scythe, and make hay of it, to 
lay up in store for winter, when snow covers the ground, 
and cattle cannot find grass to eat. 

Having taken a general view of the vegetable kingdom, 
we must reserve a more minute examination to another 
time, lest you may become fatigued with the multiplicity of 
objects, and the recollection of their names. 

S. I thank you for this explanation of the vegetable crea- 
tion, and I assure you I am much gratified with the walk, 
am not fatigued, and will be glad at another time to renew 
our inquiries. 

T. In concluding this hasty sketch of the animal and 
vegetable creation, we should not forget that God is the 
Author of all things, the Creator of the universe, the Father 
of mercies, and that to him we are indebted for all the 
blessings wc now enjoy, and to him we must look for all we 
expect beyond the grave. 



[ 302 ] 

A Representation of Objects without their Names, 
to exercise the Pupils. 

m 

VESSELS AND THEIR KINDS. 











[ 303 ] 




SPI 




DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 




fe*Sfe*3 






[ 304 ] 








%m^^5&S»ffigKg3p 





»«\nJ\\\\yK"tt\\\\\\\u\vW' 



jflriW**''* 




[ 305 ] 





BIRDS. 






I'P 



I 300 J 








QUADRUPEDS. 








imumi'AJBtf 



[ 307 ] 










• qiilHIlUlWHV 




[ 308 ] 











[ 309 ] 





— *& — '■— _£-rf> «--» ' 











[ 310 ] 
BIRDR. 










[ 311 ] 














[ 312 ] 










[ 313 ] 











Qq 



[ 314 ] 








«3S85k 



'-V&SSSS*** 



[ 315 j 
AMPHIBIOUS ANIMALS. 









[ ^ ] 

SERPENTS. 





FISHES. 





[ 317 ] 








[ 318 ] 





[ 319 ] 




USEFUL INSECTS. 







[ 320 ] 





USELESS INSECTS. 






*<r 






[ 321 ] 






INJURIOUS INSECTS. 



» + 







Rr 



[ 322 ] 







»' 



7 





I 
% 





No. 1. 

MR. ARROW SMITH'S WORK ON TEACHING DEAF MUTES. 

When (his work was digested and arranged, Mr. Arrow- 
smith's work, published In London, in one volume, octavo, 
1818, had not then come to hand. It has been subsequently 
received, and we take this opportunity of giving our readers 
the following abstract. 

It is entitled " The Art of Instructing the infant Deaf 
and Dumb, by John P. JLrrowsmith." This is a work of 
272 pages, in English, giving an account of the manner in 
which the author's brother, born Deaf and Dumb, was edu- 
cated, without being sent to any other than a common 
school. From this fact he has drawn the inference, that all 
Deaf and Dumb children may be taught in the ordinary 
schools of Great Britain. Mr. Arrowsmith appears to be 
rather obscure in detailing the means adopted in teaching 
his brother, and the method which ought to be pursued in 
teaching others. It appears by his introduction, that he 
had it in contemplation a long time to publish something on 
the subject, but was deterred, till he met with the Abbe 
de L'Epee's work in French, on the method of teaching 
Deaf Mutes. Accordingly, the greater part of Mr. Arrow- 
smith's labors consist in a translation from the Abbe de 
L'Epee. He has translated some part of de L'Epee, which 
his successor, the Abbe Sieard, has condemned and im- 
proved. He does not appear to know what the latter has 
Avritten, but is astonished at the work of his predeces- 
sor. He states that the French method of instruction is 
cried down in England, by the Edinburgh Encyclopedists, 
and the French works on the subject of the Deaf and Dumb, 
kept out of sight. He eondemns the practice of his own 
country, js decidedly opposed to the British plan of teach- 



[ , 324 -f 

ing them to speak, in which much time is lost which might 
be employed to better advantage. lie also states, that the 
art of teaching Deaf Mutes is monopolized in England, and 
enveloped in mystery, and the schools not easy of access to 
the unfortunate and poor Deaf and Dumb. 

The title page is faced with a likeness of Mr. Arrow- 
smith's brother, who has acquired the art of engraving. 
The book also contains the English or double-handed alpha- 
bet, engraved by the Deaf Mute who is the subject of the 
work. j* 



* *4 No* 2. 

A. O. STAtfSBURY's'siONS FOR NUMBERS. 

In teaching the Deaf and Dumb Arithmetic, signs for 
numbers are as essential as signs for letters, words and 
ideas. These signs arc the medium of communication be- 
tween the teacher and pupil, and produce an interchange of 
understanding. The natural knowledge of the Deaf and 
Dumb, as relates to numbers, is very limited, and does not 
extend much beyond the number of their fingers. The 
Abbe Sieard's signs for figures is far from being complete ; 
hence Mr. David Seixas, the zealous teacher of the Deaf 
and Dumb in Philadelphia, -adopted a plan which was an 
improvement, and it is now in practice in that city. It was 
adopted in the New-York Institution for a time, but some 
difficulty occurred in designating large numbers. In conse- 
quence of this, Mr. Stansbury, late superintendent of this 
institution, adopted a system of his own, which for some 
time past, has been in use in the school for the Deaf and 
Dumb in this city. The plan adopted is in accordance with 
the French signs for letters, one hand only being necessary 
in expressing any amount as high as one hundred millions. 
Either hand may be employed as for letters, though in 
general the right is principally used. The nine digits arc 
expressed by the fingers, and the letter O of the French 
alphabet stands for a cipher. After the fingers are under- 
stood to represent the Arabic characters for the nine digits, 



• 



[ 



325 



J 



the hand is to be placed with the fingers extended vertically 
in front for units, horizontally in front for tens, downwards 
in front for hundreds : on the right hand vertically for thou- 
sands, horizontally for tens of thousands, downwards for 
hundreds of thousands; and on the left hand in the same 
manner for millions, tens of millions, and hundreds of mil- 
lions. The whole system then consists in nine positions of 
the fingers, and nine positions of the hand. 

The following wood engravings by Morgan, will illus- 
trate the positions for the* digits. In the use of figures, 
however, it is first necessary to exhibit to our pupils the 
power and value of the Arabic characters, which are arbi- 
trary signs and substitutes for marks. This is done after 
the manner of Sicard, as follows : 



1 n in mi ^nii nun mini lniim uiiiiin 



1 J 


> ^ 


: 


t 


> i 


I 


7 G 







[ :i2b J 

* 6 








A more particular explanation and application of these 
signs in the practice of arithmetic with the Deaf and Dumb, 
is given in the following letter from Mr. Stanshury to Dr. 
Mitchill. 

To Dr. Samuel L. Mitchill, 
President of the Board of Directors of the New-Fork Insti- 
tution for instructing the Deaf and Dumb. 
Sir, 

Knowing the interest you feel in whatever relates to 
the progress of science, and the eause of humanity, I em- 



[ 327 ] 

brace with pleasure the opportunity of communicating to 
you, a new system of signs for teaching figures to the Deaf 
and Dumb, invented about a year ago, while I was engaged 
in the institution, which lias been successfully used since 
that time. Instead of employing both hands one alone is 
required ; the thumb represents one, the index finger two, 
the middle finger Aree, the ring finger four, and the open 
hand five ; the little finger respresents six; to this add the 
ring finger for seven ; then add the middle finger for eight, 
and the index finger for nine ; the thumb resting on the 
palm, as in the letter B of the manual alphabet. To indi- 
cate ten, the thumb is pointed forward ; twenty, the thumb 
and fore-finger, and so on to the sign for nine, pointing hori- 
zontally. Hundreds are pointed down, the hand being held 
in front of the body. For thousands the same order is pur- 
sued as for units ; only holding the hand on the right side 
of the body, or giving it a gentle inclination toward the 
right, when the sign for thousands is made. For millions, 
the hand is placed across the body toward the left, and the 
same signs made for units, tens and hundreds ; the units 
pointing up, the tens forward, and the hundreds down. 
r* In order to convey to the pupils, a distinct idea of the 
value of figures, I employed clay, formed into very small 
lumps, and stuck upon a board on which was drawn the re- 
presentation of two hands, and the figures 1, 2, 3, &c. to 9, 
against the fingers ; then adding one more lump of clay for 
the remaining thumb, to the nine lumps already on the 
board, I pressed them into one, and pointed the thumb for- 
ward towards it; to this was added another lump of the 
same size for the fore-finger, also represented pointing for- 
ward, and another, and another, to nine ; when a tenth lump 
for the remaining thumb, being united as before to the nine, 
formed one of a new series, indicated by the thumb pointing 
down; to this, nine others of the same size were added, and 
when the ten lumps were pressed into one, this was placed 
on the right side of the body, to show that every unit in 
that position was so much larger than that which was in 



[ 328 ] 

front of the body. Having d»nc this, it was easy, by signs, 
to make (hem understand that these large lumps, or thou- 
sands, Mere to be pressed into one to form a much larger 
unit, called a million, and placed on the left side of thfc 
body. The same thing may he exemplified by Weights in 
a scale: let the units be placed on a shelf above (he head, 
the weights of ten times the unit, on a shelf breast high, and 
the weights ten times as heavy as these, on the floor; by 
this arrangement, the operations of addition, subtraction, 
division and multiplication may be readily taught. Perhaps 
a more convenient mode would be, to have circular pieces 
of thin wood, with a hole in the centre, and a wire rising 
from the bottom one just high enough to make a pile of ten. 
For fractions, I adopted a mode of illustration somewhat 
different : the unit was shown by a circular board of four or 
five inches diameter ; another of the same size was sawed 
ar-ross into two, another of the same size into three, and so 
on to twelve : the unit represents a dollar, which is accord- 
ingly drawn on it ,• and so with the half, quarter, eighth and 
fifth, or pistarecn, tcilliout pillars. When a sum in addition 
is set on the black-board, or slate, the pupil selects the frac- 
tions, and putting two eighths together, substitutes one 
quarter, two quarters, one half, &c. till he produces the 
amount in units piled one on another, and the fractional 
parts placed on one side : the same thing is done in the other 
rules, with the same facility and certainty, to the great 
satisfaction of the pupil. 

In ciphering I employ the right hand alone to count units, 
and the left as a register of the number of tens, &c. 

To facilitate the learning of division, I found it necessary 
to make a new arrangement of the multiplication table, 
corresponding to the order of placing the figures ill divi- 
sion ; that is, with the divisor on the left, and the quotient 
below the dividend : for this purpose the table is reversed ; 
12 times being the upper line, and 1, 2, 3, *, &c. at the bot- 
tom. The effect of this alteration was much greater than 
any person who had not made the experiment would ima- 



[ 329 ] 

gine ; the old tables were instantly discarded, and each 
pupil was anxious to have a new one : division lost all its 
obscurity, and was performed with the same ease as multi- 
plication. 

Hoping that in your hands, these hasty remarks may be- 
come useful to the institution over which you preside, 
I remain, with due respect, 
Yours, 

A. O. STANSBURY. 



No. 3. 

NOTICE OF THE INFANCY OF MASSIEU, 

A Deaf Mute from birth, a Pupil of the Abbe Sicard, by 
Madam V C , translated from the French. 

"What sensible person is not penetrated with the necessity 
of rendering homage to the paternal inspiration of that pious 
philanthropist, who has restored to themselves the innocent 
victims of an error of nature. The beneficence of the Abbe 
de L'Epee should command a sacred acknowledgment from 
public opinion, as well as from maternal tenderness. The 
modest attempts of this ecclesiastic, were so many triumphs 
over the painful efforts of his predecessors. His reason 
discarded their systems, and his heart created a language 
for the use of the Deaf and Dumb. 

From that moment the mother believed she had obtained 
every thing ; and pressing to her bosom the infant, from 
whom, as yet, she only heard mournful sighs, she saw in 
him a messenger from heaven, who could console her in her 
misfortunes. The public came in crowds to the school of 
the celebrated instructor. He was applauded with trans- 
port; he was listened to with respectful silence, and he re- 
ceived the homage of all hearts, all ages, and of all sexes. 
The philosophic world conceived another ambition for the 
happiness of the Deaf and Dumb. They blessed the endea- 
vors of that venerable man, whose only end was to initiate 
these unfortunate children into a knowledge of the secrets 

s s 



[ 330 ] 

of heaven. They thought it useful to unite to this celestial 
science, that which w ould reveal to them the secrets of 
social relation ; but time reserved this double prodigy for 
the successor of the first friend of the Deaf and Dumb. We 
do not mean to make a comparison between these two per- 
sons, whose zeal and talents have acquired them a perma- 
nent glory, and who will be placed in the same rank by the 
friends of humanity. Can we in fact say to which belongs 
the palm, when we eannot applaud the one, without cherish- 
ing the memory of the other ? 

Courageous and patient like a good father, the Abbe de 
L'Epee goes to seek the Deaf Mutes in the midst of that 
darkness in which we find them plunged. There, surrounded 
by obstacles, having uncertain chances before him, he ex- 
tends to them the hand of succour. He is to them the first 
ray of light which is perceived by them upon the horizon 
of life. What son could hope from a father a greater mark 
of love? It is here that the renowned Abbe Sicard comes 
in his turn to seek the instructor, and render homage to his 
heroic philanthropy. Let every eye be turned towards him ; 
let every sensible heart surround him, and whilst we collect 
with tenderness what he has so wonderfully done, we have 
to regret the wonders that his zeal might have produced. 

The virtuous instructor had not only to combat nature, 
but likewise his modest and religious fears ,• and whilst his 
first success presaged to him greater triumphs, his piety 
made him doubt the event. He could without pride under- 
take what he dare not even desire. In vain a new victory 
calls him ; his scruples overcome the movements of his self- 
love, and limit such glorious work. 

The courageous and sensible man whom Providence and 
the opinion of the public have named his successor, in daring 
to leap over the limits that a too scrupulous diffidence had 
too much respected, arrives at the method of enlightening 
the reason of the Deaf Mutes. It is in the soul of his 
pupils that the Abbe Sicard arrests a paternal regard. It 
is there that he discovers the first elements of his method. 



[ J 

it is hot what he knows that he is in a hurry to teach 
""'in : as he made them his master in order afterwards to 
become theirs. Could he he mistaken and alarmed about 
the impressions which he received, if it was from them he 
borrowed the first rays of light with which he enlightens 
thciu ? He identifies himself with their imperfections, and 
his observing mind never loses sight of them. He is seen 
constantly to follow them, step by step, in proportion as 
they advance towards that state of civilization to which his 
wisdom gradually conducts them. He already knows their 
strength of mind, and the progress of which their intelli- 
gence is susceptible, when lie is enabled without danger, to 
teach them what renders life dear, embellishes, honors or 
degrades it, and thus to restore them to society. From this 
moment Deaf Mutes will no longer be strangers among 
men,* as their benefactor has made them acquainted with 



* A Deaf Mute, born in Germany, and instructed after the method of 
the Abbe de L'Epee, in the institution founded at Vienna by Joseph II. 
afterwards entered that of Prague. Having learnt the art of engraving, 
he left that city to come to Paris, where he arrived in December. Here 
without acquaintances, and a very imperfect knowledge of his national 
language, and totally ignorant of the French, he stood in want of an in- 
dividual with whom he could communicate. He could only find one 
amongst his brethren of misfortune ; he went to the institution at Paris', 
and addressed himself to Clerc, a pupil of Sicard, and Deaf and Dumb 
from birth. He was an assistant teacher, like Massieu, to one of the 
classes of this school ; a youug man who unites to a strong mind, a fluency 
and grace in his style. An acquaintance is soon made. The stranger 
had now found a friend who could comprehend and pity him. His natu- 
ral language not sufficing to obtain for him succour from other men, he 
wanted an interpreter who could translate his thoughts into the idioms 
of society. Young Clerc, who understood and wrote the French lan- 
guage well, offered this unfortunate young man to assist him as interpre- 
ter to the ambassador from the Court of Vienna, to whom he wished to 
address himself. This arrangement made the pupil of Sicard inform bis 
master of the steps he was about to take, in a note which we will here 
transcribe from the original. 

" This young Deaf Mute, without money and without friends, involved 
in debt occasioned by want of work, and threatened by his creditors, is 
going to have recourse to the bounty and generosity of his serene high- 



[ 332 ] 

the title which they have to the love of their IVliow beings. 
Touching truth ! which it is as sweet to reveal as to believe, 
and which egotism will not know how to abuse, as soon as 
the teacher makes his pupils feel all the dignity of man. 
Then struck with this great and sublime thought, they con- 
ceive the whole extent of the duties which society requires, 
and in which they have just taken their places. From this 
time, they know what of probity, generosity and industry they 
owe to it. Until that moment life was to them only a silent 
voyage, during which they only experienced an internal, 
secret and continual movement that no visible force ean 
arrest, and whose whole mystery is in the power of an im- 
mortal soul. Until then they dragged out an existence 
without object or aim. The same ignorance, the same im- 
mobility described the circle of their long and useless days; 
a vague, inquiet and melancholy curiosity showed itself in 
their looks, whose gloom and dullness saddened the mother 
or the friend upon whom they were directed. But now be- 
hold them in contact with all the interests of life; every 
thing becomes animated around them, useful in their ima- 
ginations, and active in their hearts : they are attracted in 
fine by every thing, and by that social physiognomy which 
awakens such sensations, and produces such ideas as bind 
and unite individuals and their minds together. They no 
longer interrogate in vain, and their answers correspond 
with their judgments, and the lights they have received. 
Surely we cannot doubt the happy results of an education 



ness, the ambassador of Austria. He desires me to accompany him, not 
only as a guide, but to aid him in expressing his ideas. 1 am very happy 
to be able to assist him, as this is my day of liberty." 

The ambassador was absent ; the deplorable situation of the Deaf 
Mute demanded prompt assistance. Young Clerc, full of zeal aud hu- 
manity, directs his steps to other places ; he calls upon several engra- 
vers ; by writing he makes known the object of his visit, aud the talents 
of his unfortunate companion. He at last succeeds in getting him a 
place with an engraver, where by means of his daily work, he is enabled 
to provide for all his wants. 



I 333 ] 

inspired by their misfortune, when we observe them apply- 
ing the advantages of their talents and labors, in which 
society and their families partake so largely.* 

A language purely mechanical and made for the memory, 
would never produce such a miraculous regeneration ; one 
was required which would speak to the human understand- 
ing. It will then be easily understood, that it is owing to 
this new creation of the theory of signs, that the master is 
able to complete his work, and the Deaf and Dumb pupil no 
longer to be a useless being upon the earth ! 

In order to appreciate the labors of these two benefactors 
of the Deaf and Dumb, we must compare their deplorable 
condition before instruction, with their state of existence 
after they have acquired an education. It is only by exa- 
mining them in these two states, that we are enabled to be- 
lieve in the success of their instruction, and to applaud it 
with enthusiasm. 

It will be easy for our readers to be convinced of this, by 
some characteristic traits of the infancy of Massieu, that 
we owe to a man of letters what we have here related, and 
to which we will be permitted to add what we have our- 
selves collected concerning this Deaf Mute. We can imagine 
then what loss it would have been for society, as well as for 
humanity, if this interesting being, who from his cradle, 
felt the necessity of extending his moral existence; who de- 
manded in vain from the authors of his days, the God which 
he ought to adore, that worship he ought to render him, 
and in fine, the lights which nature had interdicted him ; if 
say I, he had been condemned, by chance, not to meet upon 
the earth him who could grant his prayers ? 

" I had many communications with Massieu, our author 
tells us in his charming work (La corbeille de fleurs). I 
was not able to avail myself of speech with him, as he would 



* Many Deaf Mutes are employed in public offices, and in the print- 
ing-office of the institution, horn which they receive the fruit of their 
daily labors for the supportof themselves and their aged parents. 



r aw ] 

not have understood me, and I could not avail myseM if bifl 
gestures, as I would not have comprehended them. It \u»^ 
with the pen that I put my questions, and with it he made 
his replies." 

*' Demand. Do you love your father and mother? 

Response. Yes, very much. 

]f. How can you make them understand you ? 
Ii. By eigne. 

** I concluded from these first answers, that the senti- 
ment of filial love was no stronger to Massicu. Shortly 
after this conversation with him, 1 had a proof that this 
sentiment was one of those which predominated in his heart. 
His intelligence had given him an honorahle standing in the 
institution among the Deaf Mutes. The convention by a 
decree had given him an appointment." 

" As soon as M. L'Abbe Sicard had read this flattering 
decree to his pupil, the latter, transported with joy, ex- 
pressed this thought by his gestures : I am at length assured 
of the means of procuring bread for my aged mother. 

" The Abbe Sicard wrote to me some time after, as fol- 
lows : 

" Tl'.e acts of filial love never cost the least effort of his 
sensible and grateful heart. To give to his parents is to 
repay them (said he to me one day). This young man was 
only occupied with the wants of his mother. All that he 
receives as a tutor in the institution, lie immediately gives 
to her, and he would have debarred himself the use of any 
part of it, if I had not called to his recollection that he had 
Avants of his own, and that he ought to reserve something 
to satisfy them. The first movement of his heart, when he 
received either his salary or a gift from persons who were 
enchanted by the justness and precision of his answers, was 
to say to me by signs, this is for my poor mother.'* 

" I longed to have more extended details of the infancy 
of Massicu. I asked him in writing one day, to give me 
the history of his early years ; he brought me very soon 
afterwards the following raorccau, which is entirely digested 
by himself." 



[ 335 ] 

" I was born at Semens, canton of St. Macaire, depart- 
ment of the Gironde. 

M My father died in the month of January, 1791 ; my 
mother is still alive. 

" In my country we were six Deaf Mules in one paternal 
family, three hoys and three girls. 

" I remained at home till the age of thirteen years and 
nine months, to which time I had never received any instruc- 
tion ; I was in darkness as respects learning. 

" I expressed my ideas by manual signs, or by gesture. 
The signs which served me then to express my ideas to my 
parents, my brothers and sisters, were very different from 
those of instructed Deaf Mutes. Strangers never compre- 
hended us when we expressed our ideas by signs to them, 
but the neighbors did. 

" I saw cattle, horses, asses, hogs, dogs, cats, vegetables, 
houses, fields and vineyards, and when I had seen all these 
objects, I remembered them well. 

" Before my instruction, when I was a child, I neither 
knew how to read nor write. I had a desire to read and 
write. I often saw girls and boys who went to school ; I 
desired to follow them, and I was very jealous of them. 

" With tears in my eyes, I asked permission of my father 
to go to school ; I took a book and opened it upside down, 
which was a mark of my ignorance ; I put it under my arm 
as if to go, but my father refused the permission which I 
asked, by making to me signs, that I would never be able 
to learn, because I was a Deaf Mute. 

w Then I cried very loud. I again took the book to read 
it, but I knew neither letter, word, phrase, nor period. 
Full of grief I put my fingers in my ears, and impatiently- 
required my father to cure me. 

" He answered me that he had no remedies. Then I be- 
came disconsolate ; I left my father's house and went to 
school, without telling my parents : I presented myself to 
the master, and demanded of him by signs, to teach me to 
write and to read. He refused mc roughly, and pushed me 



[ 330 J 

1'rom the school. That made me weep much, hut it «lid not 
discourage me. I often thought ahout writing and leading; 
then I was twelve years old ; I attempted all alone to form 
with a pen, the signs for writing. 

'* In my childhood my father had required me to offer 
up my prayers by signs, evening and morning. I fixed my- 
self upon my knees; I joined my hands and moved my lips, 
in imitation of those who speak when they pray to God. 

" Now I know there is a God who is the maker of hea- 
ven and of earth. In my infancy I adored the heavens, not 
God ; I did not see God, I saw the heavens. 

«« I neither knew if I had been made, nor if I had made 
myself. I grew large ; but if I had never known my in- 
structor, Sicard, my mind would never have grown as my 
body, for my mind was very poor ; in growing up I would 
have believed that the heaven was God. 

" Then the children of my age would not play with me: 
they despised me ; I was like a dog. 

" I amused myself all alone to play with a mallet, a top, 
or to run upon stilts. 

" I was acquainted with numbers before my instruction > 
my fingers had learned me them. I did not know them by 
figures ; I counted upon my fingers ; and when the number 
exceeded ten, I made notches upon a stick. 

" In my childhood, my parents sometimes made me guard 
the sheep, and often those who met me, touched with my 
situation, gave me some money. 

" One day a gentleman (M. de Puymorin) who passed by, 
took pity on me, and made me go to his house, and gave me 
food to eat and drink. 

« Having then set out for Bourdeaux, he spoke of me to 
M. Sicard, who consented to take charge of my education. 

«< The gentleman wrote to my father, who showed me the 
letter, but I could not read it. 

" My parents and my neighbors told me what it con- 
tained. They informed me that I was going to Bourdeaux. 
They thought that I was going to be a cooper. My father 
informed me that it was to learn to read and write. 



L 337 ] 

" I set out with him for Bourdeaux. When we had ar- 
rived, we made a visit to M. Ahbe Sicard, and I found him 
very thin. 

" I began by forming the letters with the fingers : after 
many days I knew how to write some words. 

" In the space of three months, I knew how to write 
many words; in six months I could write some phrases; in 
a year I wrote pretty well. 

" In a year and some months I wrote better, and could 
answer some questions put to me. 

" I was three years and six months with the Abbe Sicard, 
when I went with him to Paris. 

" In the space of four years I became as a speaking 
being. 

" I would have made greater progress, if a Deaf Mute 
had not inspired me with great fear, which made me very 
unhappy. 

" A Deaf Mute, who had a friend a physician, told me 
that those who had never been sick from their infancy would 
never live to be old ; but those who had often been so would 
live to be very old. 

« Recollecting then, that I had never been sick since my 
birth, I had a constant fear that I could not live to be old, 
and that I should never be thirty-five, forty, forty-five, nor 
fifty years old. 

" My brothers and sisters, who had never been sick from 
the time of their birth, were dead. My other brothers and 
sisters, who had often been sick, were restored. 

" From never having been sick, and the belief which fol- 
lowed it that I could not live to be old, I would have studied 
more ; I would have been very very knowing as those who 
speak. 

" If I had not known that Deaf person, I would not have 
feared death, and I would always have been happy." 

" It appears astonishing that we can write to Massieu. 
and reason with him as with a man of the clearest uider- 

Tt 



I 338 ] 

standing; but this will not surprise us, when we know that 
Massieu is, perhaps, one of the profoundest men of the age. 
The plainness, the precision, the sublimity of some of his 
answers to questions the most unexpected, the most difficult, 
and the most abstract, will enable us to judge of the tem- 
per of his mind, and the sensibility of his heart. 

" I asked him one day before many persons ; My dear 
Massieu, before your instruction, what did you believe of 
those who looked at each other, and moved their lips ? 

" I believed, he replied, that they eoopressed their ideas. 

" D. Why did you believe that ? 

" B. Because I had observed that when persons had 
spoken to my father concerning me, he threatened to punish 
me for what I had done. 

*i D. You believed then, that the movement of the lips 
were a means of communicating ideas. 

" B. Yes. 

" D. Why did you not move your lips to communieate 
your own ideas ? 

" B. Because I had never sufficiently noticed the lips of 
those who speak, and when I tried to speak they told me 
my noise was bad. As they told me that my misfortune 
was in my ears, I took some brandy and put it in my ears, 
and stopped them up with cotton. 

« D. Did you know what it was to hear ? 

« B. Yes. 

" D. How did you learn that ? 

" B. A relation who could hear, and lived in the house, 
told me that she saw with her ears, a person which she did 
not see with her eyes, when he came to see my father. 

« Persons who hear, see with their ears during the night, 
those who walk. 

** The nocturnal walk distinguishes persons and their 
names to those who hear. 

«« We see by the style of these answers, that I have been 
umter the necessity of copying and preserving them exactly, 
to transmit them to the public." 



[ 339 ] 

Nothing, without doubt, is more interesting to know, 
than the early impressions of a Deaf Mute from birth ; but 
how is this interest augmented, when it lias for its object 
one of these unfortunates, who having arrived to a perfeet 
state of civilization, contributes not only by his talents to 
the glory of his master, but even to the school, where his 
intellectual and moral faculties have been developed. Can 
we not recognize the man who is sensible of his own dignity, 
in this simple and natural recital which the pupil of the 
Abbe Sicard has made himself, of the first sensations and 
chagrins which he has experienced ? His vague reveries 
while guarding the ilock entrusted to him ; his tears for an 
ignorance, the consciousness of which he always carried 
about him ; the inquiet and ambitious desire to overcome 
the insurmountable barrier which nature had placed be- 
tween his reason and the lights which it implored, did 
they not all serve him as an impulse of that secret power 
which directs a man into an active existence? As for the 
rest, he appeared to us still more curious when we had 
taken notice of these particulars, and learned from himself 
what object presented itself to his view, and what sentiment 
occupied his mind, during the religious act which paternal 
piety exacted of him every morning. We knew him suffi- 
ciently to foresee the power that imagination ought to have 
upon his religious belief; which never being willing to in- 
terrogate in vain, dares to believe all to consecrate to his 
will, the enjoyments, the mysteries and the claims, and not 
fear to bring forth fables when the reality escapes him. It 
is thus in truth, that (Massieu) born with an ardent mind, 
and without any point of support in the moral world, this 
infant Deaf Mute, curious to penetrate the secrets of that 
nature which animates and attracts his eyes under a thou- 
sand forms, embraces a chimera in the absence of truth. 
But we ought rather to pity than to accuse him, since in his 
error he furnishes us himself, a new proof of innate religion 
in the heart of man. The following is an abridged conver- 
sation which was held with him on this subject. 



[ :mo ] 

Of what did you think, we asked him, when your father 
made you fall upon your knees ? — Of heaven. — Willi what 
intention did you make a prayer ? — In order to make it de- 
scend by night upon the earth, to the end that the vegeta- 
bles which I had planted should grow, and that the sick 
should be restored to health. — "Was it these ideas, these 
words, and these sentiments, which composed your prayer ? 
It was the heart that made it. I did not know at that time, 
either words or their meaning. — What did you experience 
then in your heart ? — Joy, when I found that the plants and 
the fruits grew ; pain, when I saw them injured by the hail, 
and that my parents still continued sick. 

At these last words of his answer, Massicu made many 
signs which expressed his anger and threatening. 

Is it thus you menace heaven, we demanded of him with 
astonishment ? — Yes. — But with what motive ? — Because I 
thought I should never be able to reach to attack and de- 
stroy it, because it had caused all those disasters, and did 
not cure my parents. — Was you not afraid to irritate, and 
that it would punish you ? — I did not then know my good 
master Sieard, and I was ignorant what heaven was ; it was 
only a year after my education that I feared to be punished 
by it. — Did you give a figure or form to this heaven ? — My 
father had shown me a large statue in the church in my 
country ; it represented an old man with a long beard ; he 
held a globe in his hand ; I believed that he dwelt beyond 
the sun. — Did you know who had made the ox, the horse, 
&e? — No ; but I had much curiosity to see them born : I 
often hid myself in the ditches to observe heaven descend 
upon the earth for the growth of beings ; I wished very 
much to see it. — What did you think when the Abbe Sieard 
made you form for the first time, words with the letters ? — 
I thought that the words were the images of the objects 
which I saw around me ; I treasured them up in my memory 
with a living ardor ; when I read the word God, and had 
written it upon the black-board with a pencil, I looked at it 



[ 341 ] 

very often, for I believed that God caused death, and 1 
feared it very much. — What idea had you of it then ? — I 
thought that it was the cessation of motion, of sensation, of 

exiling, of the tenderness of the skin and of the flesh Why 

had >ou this idea ? — I had seen a dead body. — Did you think 
you should always live ? — I believed that there was a celes- 
tial earth, and that the body was eternal. 

We do not think it necessary to give here any further de- 
tail of the conversation with this pupil of the Abbe Sicard ; 
it answers, as we have said, to make known the idea that 
he now has of the true God; his acknowledgment for that 
to which he owes so great a benefit, as to render homage 
himself to the education which has raised the thick veil that 
deprived him of so many consoling friths. It is without 
doubt, one of the conquests the most precious of this method, 
since he had to combat the errors so much cherished, as 
they arose from the first inspiration of that innate senti- 
ment of which we have spoken. We ought then, in order 
to complete this triumph, not to be alarmed at the senti- 
ment which appeared to justify these errors, but to oppose 
with wisdom, the logic of truth to the seducing illusions of 
a disordered imagination. This success was reserved for an 
enlightened and pious instructor. 

As many answers of this Deaf Mute, so justly celebrated 
by his discoveries in the language of thought, have made a 
noise in the world, we will relate here, many which make 
better known his religious principles, and the justness of his 
thoughts, by adding what we have often observed, that if the 
question proposed does not offer a pointed interest, an an- 
swer is only obtained the most common, as would be that 
from an unlettered man ; and that if we wish to find him 
such as his renown presents him, we must interrogate him 
upon subjects of a certain depth. 

A person asked him one day in a public assembly, what 
difference he made between God and nature ? This was his 
answer. 

<• God is the first Maker, the Creator of all things. The 
first beings were all drawn from his divine bosom. He has 



[ 342 ] 

said to the first, you shall be second ,• his wishes are laws ; 
these laws are nature." 

A woman of our acquaintance said to him one day, that 
she compared Providence to a good mother. 

" The mother, said he, only takes care of her own chil- 
dren, whilst Providence takes care of all beings." 

These are the answers which he gave to the following 
questions. 

What is virtue, God, and eternity ? 

" Virtue, said he, is the invisible, which holds the reins 
of the visible." 

" God is the necessary being, the sun of eternity, the 
clock-maker of nature, the mechanist of the universe, and 
the soul of the world." 

" Eternity is a day without an yesterday or to-morrow." 

We desired to know what he understood by a sense ? 

" A sense, said he, is an idea carrier.** 

Some persons wishing to embarrass him, asked him, what 
is hearing? 

" It is the auricular sight." 

A few days ago we asked him if he made any distinction 
between a conqueror and a hero ? Without hesitation he 
wrote upon the slate as follows : 

" Arms and soldiers make the conqueror. Courage of 
the heart makes the hero. Julius Csesar was the hero of 
the Romans. Napoleon is the hero of Europe." 

At the public exercise of 25th April, 1808, he was asked, 
what is hope ? and he immediately answered, 

« It is the flower of happiness." 

We will terminate by an answer which, though well 
known, appears to us t« deserve a place in this notiee. 

His master asked, him one day, what is gratitude? He 
immediately answered, as if by inspiration, 

" Gratitude is the memory of the heart." 

A grand thought, and which could only come from the 
heart. 

V C 



[ 343 ] 

No. 4. 
J. R. pereyra's claim to notice as a teacher of the 

DEAF AND DUMB. 

We are indebted to I. Alvares Deleon, professor of the 
French and Spanish Languages, late of Philadelphia, but 
now of Hyde Park, Dutchess County, of the State of 
New-York, for the following translations from a memoir of 
Mr. Pereyra, on the subject of instructing the Deaf and 
Dumb, &c. 

ON THE DEAF AND DUMB. 

«« The following are vouchers which plainly show, and 
incontrovertibly prove, that neither father Vanin, nor the 
Abbe Deschamps, nor the Abbe de L'Epee, nor the Abbe 
St. Sernin, nor the Abbe Sicard, nor any of the learned 
men of illustrious France, have been the first professors or 
founders of schools for the Deaf and Dumb, but that it is to 
Mr. J. R. Pereyra, a Spanish Jew, that France, and suc- 
cessively, all the States of Europe, and now America, are 
indebted for the ingenious, valuable and sublime art, which 
in a very high degree, restores insignificant, forlorn, and 
unfortunate beings to the human kind, between which and 
the brutes, they until then had been looked upon by the 
generality of men, as belonging to an intermediate class. 
Some instances, however, seem to have really existed, of 
certain Deaf Mutes having been rendered capable, in the 
15th, 16th and 17th centuries, through the skilful and phi- 
lanthropic exertions of a few enlightened men, to carry on 
conversations with their fellow beings, either with the help 
of certain arbitrary signs, or in an audible and distinct pro- 
lation ; but says the celebrated Mr. Lecat, in his Treatise of 
the Senses, '" no other than Mr. Pereyra has carried to a 
higher degree of success, the art of correcting the physical 
defects of the Deaf and Dumb : not only he makes them 
read and write, but what is yet more wonderful, he enables 
them to speak, converse and discourse, with a stock of 
knowledge almost equal to that of other men." The ooh- 



[ 344 



, . .. 



elusion of his pertinent, able, curious and philosophical dis- 
sertation, runs in these words. It must he confessed that for 
that alone, he deserves to be ranked icith those who hare the 
best merited the suffrages of the public, the gratitude of man- 
kind, and the encouragement of all the potentates." 

Now I will introduce Mr. Pereyra to the reader's ac- 
quaintance, through the following documents, which cannot 
fail to fill them with admiration and respect towards him. 

" JL Memoir read by Mr. rcreyra, at the sitting of the Royal 

Academy of Sciences, on the llf/i of June, 17i9.'^ 
" Gentlemen, 

" Notwithstanding the flattering encomiums that 
the learned academy of Caen, and a number of enlightened 
persons have so generously lavished on my method of teach- 
ing the Deaf and Dumb how to speak and reason, nothing 
could deter my mind from deserving the approbation of a 
company who, through the august protection of the greatest 
of monarchs, and the vast learning of the members that 
compose it, so worthily makes the admiration and the most 
solid ornament of France, of Europe, and the universe. It 
is with so flattering a view that I now come, gentlemen, to 
beseech you to examine the effects which my cares and 
exertions have produced in Mr. d'Azy d'Etavigny, whom 
I have the honor of introducing to you. His actual pro- 
ficiency will afford sufficient matter to your penetration, for 
passing a decisive judgment on all the advantages that tho 
Deaf and Dumb must expect from my art. I have formed 
on this subject a memoir containing, moreover, some re- 
marks which arc relative to it; be pleased, gentlemen, to 
hear the perusal of it. 

" This young Deaf Mute distinctly pronounces, though 
yet very slowly, the letters, syllables and words, let them 
be written to him, or be shown him by signs. He from his 
own accord, answers verbally or in writing, to the familiar 
questions put to him. He often proposes questions himself, 
and he acts agreeably to what he is desired to do, if he is 

spoken to in writing, or with the manual alphabet, of which 

I 4 



i% 



4 



> 

asfei" makes i 



^ 341 ] * 



his master makes use with him, no other sign being re- £ 
quired to indicate what lie is requested to do. By the 
means of his tongue he demands things which he daily jf 
stands in need of. lie recites by heart the decalogue and g 

sundry prayers, and pertinently answers several catecheti- 
cal questions. In grammar lie gives to each noun its pro- 
per article, seldom mist; ki.ig them ; he has some faint 
knowledge ofyflTvaluc of cases, as well as of the pronouns ^f 
most commonly used. As to the verbs, he no^only knows V 
how to conjugate them when they arc regular, but he more- 
over names the person they ask him separately, in what- 
ever numbcr^tenseand mood it may be ; he yet is far more 
acquainted with (he use of the indicative. He is also pretty 
well conversaut with the most common and familiar expres- 
sions of both the other parts of speech and syntax, never 
applying for instance an adjective in the feminine gender 
a substantive masculine, nor a plural to a singular. It 
very seldom happens that he commits any mistakes in the 
tenses, numbers and persons of the verbs which he uses in 
expressions, especially if it is in the indicative mood he is 
to employ them ; he already avoids a deal of repetitions, 
often using pronouns and relative articles; he* observes • 
tolerably certain orthographical rules; moreover it is to be # • 
noticed: ,. t -Jfc %* « 

^V^st. That if in every one of the above particulars, 
blunders have been committed in writing, he generally takes 







notice thereof; nay, makes corrections as soon as he js 
allowed so to do. p, ^ 

" 2dly. He alters and modifies his utterance several ways, ? 
speaking loud or low as he is requested ; he imitates by the 
sound of his voice, those differences that au observable in 
interrogation, praying or command ; and although the let- 
ters, especially the vowels, arc susceptible of divers pronun- 
tciations in French, none of them being made an exception 
thereto, and becoming mute ou some occasions, nevertheless 
Mr. d'Ktavigiiy does not fall in giving them their proper 
value: if he" makes aBj mistake, it is only in words he is 



->f 



^f. I iiQ ] 



fthe 






^acquainted with. In arithmetic he is master of the four 
'l rules; the two first by fractions, and numbers verbally any 
*^ sum proposed to^Jim in ciphers. In geography, he distin- 
gujfees on the map the four quarters of the world, the prin- ii 
cipifl kingdoms m Europe, of which he names the capitals; 
* his acquaintance with France embraces the provinces and 
the most remarkable cities; his mind is also enriched with 
some information that might be referred to chronology, as 
the division he makes of the year, of the months and the 
veck ; to history, as the creation of the world, which he re- 
cites ; nay, to some more abstract sciences ; but it would be 
a hard task to give a just estimate in writing of all such 
particulars. 4 A JL?ijk 

" Mr. Azy d'Etavigny is 19 years of age. Pereyra began 
his instruction in the College of the Duke of Orleans at 
Beaumont, in Auge, in Normandy, on the 13th July, 1746. 
ILe had the honor, four months after, to introduce him to 
the Academy of Belles Leltres of Caen, where the Bishop 
of Bayeux presided as the protector, that he should be 
examined on his progress, which was already considerable 
enough in point of pronunciation, seeing the little time 
Pereyra had instructed him. He was obliged to part with 
his disciple in the beginning of the month of May, 1747, 
when he possessed the right understanding of about 1300 
words, and could read and pronounce distinctly.* Pe- 
reyra could not resume his instructions before the 15th oi 
February, 1748. He found his pronunciation, for want of 
constant practice under his direction, extremely vicious, 
and very little intelligible, so that it might boldly be asserted, 
that considering the time required to correct it, all that Mr. 
d'Etavigny knows at present, has been the work of the time 
elapsed from the last epoch, that is, sixteen months. 

" Besides a slowness, an extreme harshness in that young 

man's pronunciation is also observable; it arises in particu- 
9 % * 

* All these particulars are minutely recorded in the following paper> 
of 1747 ; namely, Journal des Savante, for July ; Mercure de Frauce, foi 
August ; Journal de Verdun, for Norember, &c. 

* • 




s% 



?• 



lav irom the vices contracted during the ten month's inteW fi 
ruption it had undergone ; but particularly from the stiff- 
ness of his organs, which had lost a great deal of their 
natural pliableness when Pereyra began to put them in 
motion, his pupil being then 16 years old. It may there- 
fore be inferred, that these defects will considerably lessen 
in proportion as he goes on under his muster's care, to make 
use of speech ; for doubtless the parts by which it is framed, 
will acquire thereby, both more suppleness and agility, arti- 
culation consequently becoming to him easier and more 
regular." 

" It will be seen by this memoir, that the views of Pe- 
reyra in the instruction of the Deaf and Dumb, go to the 
teaching them how to pronounce all the words of the 
French language, or of any other tongue, provided they 
have learned them already; but what is more, and this is 
the main point of the instruction, they are to understand 
the sense of those words, and convey through them, cither 
verbally or in writing, all their thoughts in the same man- 
ner as others do, which consequently* will enable them to 

7* y& ^r *9^ 

learn and exercise like other persons, any art or science 

whatever, with the exception only with respect to practice 
of the things for which the sense of hearing is indispensibly 
necessary. Pereyra teaches them also arithmetic, and can 
give them commercial and mathematical knowledge." 

It is easily conceived that for speaking to pupils, the use 
of writing or ordinary signs are necessary. Although this 
last means always carries with it something confused or 
ambiguous, it is nevertheless plain, that the verbal interro- 
gations the Deaf and Dumb will be obliged to make, to get 
the thorough understanding of what will be told them, will 
obviate that defect in a sufficient manner. 

Besides this means ofspcaking to them, Pereyra employs 
a third one, which has the advantage of being as expressive 
as the first, more becoming than the second, and easier 
than both. It is a manual alphabet he has learned in 
Spain, but which he has been at the trouble of considerably 

* .V V' > v ♦ *2 



# • 



r W 

* ?*■*•;•' '*• v .*' 



ff 

• 



augmenting and perfecting, in order to fit it to the correctly 
speaking French. He makes use of it with such a spcedi- 
ness as to make it resemble more the nimblencss of the 
tongue than the slo\vness<of the pen. This alphabet is 
comprised in the fingers of a single hand, which is jet sufti- 
cient to Pereyra to express in figures all sorts of sums, and 
to teach his pupils still more easily and safely than by the 
usual methods of the four rules of arithmetic. 

These are not the only resources which may effectually 
alleviate the misfortune of Deafness in Pereyra's pupils : 
they will moreovir understand by the motions of the lips, 
eyes, head, hands, ecc. of the persons who will communicate 
with them, whatever it is wished to impart to them. This 
way of apprehension requires still a considerable study, 
particularly if the pcrsons*speaking are not well known to 
the Deaf Mutes who will make themselves understood; and 
if the discourse held with them differs much from familiar 
questions and conversations, yet it will always be of some 
utility to them, as it is susceptible of being perfected in 



process of time, both by their penetration and practice. 

* CONCLUSION. «4j^, * \ 

_" It would be tfl||Kesspass on your compliance, gentle- 
men, were I to expatiate here on numerous observations I 
could make on the purpose of this memoir : however, I 
entertain the hope they will be disclosed to you another 
time, and that it will be more convenient for me to acquaint 
you with them in proportion as my pupil's proficiency will 
he submitted to you, and that you will deign to continue the ♦«/ 
honor of your attention upon every one of those observa- 
tions in a particular manner." 

Read by Mr. Pereyra at the Academy, on the 11th .1 une, 



4 



1749. 

J' 



Extract of the Registers of the Royal Jlcademy of Sciences. 
-^J - ft | Paris, July 9th, 1749. 

«« We have seen, in pursuance of the Academy's order, 
a memoir that Mr. Pereyra has read at the assembly on the 

v Vr*!« ■■•••• 



{ 

• 






1llh ol last month, upon the effects of his ait for teaching 
the Deaf and Dumb how to speak, and we consequently 
have16*amiued, in a particular manner, what he therein * 

* slates about Mr. d'Azy d'Etavigny, his pupil, Deaf and 
Dumb from his birth. *. ^» 

<£lt is not from this day that the possibility of so carious *m 
and useful an art is confirmed by experience. Mr. Wallis, 
in England, and Mr. Amman, in Holland, ha£prattise<l it #- 

9 wilh success in the last century. These two learned men's 
works are known to every Hbdy. It appears #om tlieu^ . * 
testimony, that a certain clergyman had exercised himself 
in it before them. Emanuel Ramirez de Cortona and Peter 

• de Castro, both Spaniards, had likewise treated this matter 
before them, and we make no doubt that other authors hare 
also written and given to the public, some methods on this 
art; but the instance of Mr. d'Etavigny, is the first and 
only tfke of which we have any knoivleSge. . 




had already made some such 
undertook in Normandy, on 



ed by Mr. Pereyra, that he bjf^jreajljynAle some sflfch 
essays with success ; that Jie u 
fT^stri 
Deaf and UflfK then aged sixteen ; that in a few days he 
taught him how to articulate some wards, such as papa, 



«' It may be seen by the memoir and certifii 
(luce 
cssai 
the 13th July, 1746, the instruction of that young man, 

hat 

wor< 
maman, chateau, madame, chapeau ; that in November fol- 
lowing, he presented him to the Academy of Belles Lettres 
of Caen, by whom it was found he actually could distinctly 
pronounce a great number of words ; that Mr. Pereyra was 
obliged to quit him in the beginning of May, 17+7, at a 
time when he got the intelligence of thirteen hundred words, 
and could read and articulate tolerably; that he resumed 
his pupil's instruction on the 15th February, 17*8, and that 
he saw himself obliged, owing to some defects that had 
• crept into his pronunciation during that interval, to begin 
anew his instruction, whieh reasonably leads Mr. Pereyra to 
think that the young man's attainments must be esteemed 
^ the work of sixteen months. t ^-^^ *<> * 



<£#.. 






1 .•.»**fUf •» l :,» 



I. 350 J 

*•' With respect to the actual proficiency of Mr. d'Azj 
d'Etavigny, although what we have seen of it appears to 
us sufficient to judge of the same, our duty,jievertKeless, 
actuates us to discourse on this particular, in a minute and 

circumstantial manner." 

■ 

k* Here follows an analysis of Mr. Pereyra's memoir, and 
the conclusion of this analysis runs thus: 

" We find that Mr. d'Etavigny's progress, attained in so 
short a time, quite sufficiently proves the goodness of the 
method used hy Mr. Percyra in his instruction, and demon- 
strates the singularity of his talent for practising it, as also 

that there is much room to expect, that by such means the 

9 
Deaf and Dumb will be able not only to pronounce and 

read all sorts of words, and comprehend the value of those 

which designate visible things, but that t^ey will be made 

capable of acquiring the abstract and general notions they 

stand in need of, will become sociable, able to reason and 

act in the same manner as such persons do who have lost 

their hearing, after having attained the age of reason. As 

there have been seen a kind of deaf persons who could 

understand by the motions of the lips, what people wanted 

to say to them, we unhesitatingly believe that Mr. Pereyra 

eould succeed in endowing his pupils with such a facility, 

by adding to it the instructions he mentions in his memoir. 

« We also think that the manual alphabet of Mr. Pereyra, 
for which he only employs a single hand, will become, if' 
rendered public, so much the more commodious for his 
pupils, and for those who will be wishing to hold a converse 
with them, as it appears extremely simple and expeditious, 
consequently easy to be acquired and to be used. 

« We therefore judge that the art of teaching to read and 
speak, the Deaf and Dumb, such as Mr. Pereyra practises 
it, is extremely ingenious ; that his usage much interests 
the public good, and that no exertions ought to be spared to 
induce Mr. Pereyra to cultivate and perpetuate it. 

(Signed) D'ARTOUS DE MAIRAN, 

B1JFFON, 
* M FERREIN." 



> 



I 3ft J 



j* Letters published in Bourdeaux, in IS Echo du Commerce, 
- g in 1806. f 

I beg, Sir, you would lie pleased to insert in your interest- 
ing paper, a faint notice of one of the least honored, and yet 
most honorable of our fellow citizens,. 



* 



4 



Extract from the Mercury, for March, 1750. 

LETTER OF MR. PEBEYRA TO MR. REMOXD DE ST. ALBIXE. 

I ni^ft sincerely thank you, Sir, for having imparted the 
honor I had on the 7th and 8th January last, of being intro- 
duced, with my pupil, to the King, the Dauphin, and the 
Princesses"of France, by the Duke de Chaulnes, president 
of the Royal Academy of Sciences. However, the brevity 
of your narrative induces me to think that you have been 
but very lightly instructed in that respect, which obliges 
me to desire you to make public the two following particu- 
lars, which surely reflect too much honor upon me, that I 
should give them up to oblivion. The first is, that the 
curiosity of hearing a Deaf Mute speak, having impelled 
his majesty to pgrmit Mr. d'Etavigny, my pupil, to appear 
before him on tflfl 7th January, he deigned, as well as the 
Dauphin, to hear him with an admirable benignity, for about 
three quarters of an hour: the second is. that on the next day, 
I was again sent for, according to the king's command, &c. 
(Signed) PEREYRA. 

In order to acquaint the reader with the late prevailing 
opinion in France, respecting the first real professor of the 
sublime art of teaching the Deaf and Dumb how to com- 
municate their thoughts, through a clear, distinct and per- 
fect prolation, and set forever at rest, any pretended doubts 
in regard to the same, now or hereafter started by any 
ignorant or uncandid set of men, partisans of the Abbots de 
L'Epee and Sicard, the following extracts of Ie«ter9 pub- 
lished in Bourdeaux, in 1806, will afford additional infor- 
mation on the subject, by throwing thereon the brightest 
and most refulgent light. 



** ♦ F 3^2 



»♦§ 



Endowed by nature with a genius and with talents pre- 
cious to mankind, he deserves a place among the greatest 
men who have honored our dear country, our native oily ! 
He has not less claims than thevto the justest celebrity ! 

• J. rlodrigues Pereyra^i Jew, from Bourdeaux, of Spanish 
origin, was the inventor of the preetous and beneficent in- 

,' stitution of, the Deaf and Dumb. lie founded (he first pub- 
lic and gratuitous school of the same in Bourdeaux (in my 
father's house, Augustine-street) towards the middle of the 
last century, and a few years after, transferred it to Paris. 
Being then presented to Lewis the XVth, a friend and p.o- 
teetor of the arts, particularly of those that are essentially 
^ useful, he met with the most favorable and most distin- 
guished reception, as well as the most flattering encourage- 
ment and eulogies. Nay, this monarch deigned to honor him 
^ -With often admitting him at his table: a truth certified in 
the accounts thereof inserted in the newspapers of those 
days. 

Shall I here dare loudly to say, Sir, what I think on the 
subject? *The unjust destiny of Rodrigues Percy ra, com- 
Jp % pared with the good luck and eclat of the Abbots de L'Epee 
and Sicard, so justly celebrated, reminds me of another yet 
more unfortunate and unjust. The greatest and most in- 
trepid of navigators, the Genoese, Christopher Columbus, 
first discovers a new world, and it is the luckiest of his suc- 
cessors, the Florentine, Americ Vespucio, who gives it his 
name forever ! Sic vos non vobis ! 

The same happens in all countries, and at all times. 
t ♦ ft * JViZ sub sole novum. 

* (Signed) L'lIOSPITAL. 

* Bourdeaux, PluviUse (Feb.) 1806. 

• ■ ^ t • I 

* 

Letter of Mr. Pereyra* to Mr. L 9 Hospital. 

* Sir, — In claiming for my father's memory, the Jionor of 

the invention of the art which Messrs. de L'Epee and Sicard 

i t « ^ _ , 

* Mr/Pereyra, the writer of the above letter, was the only son of J. 
Rodrigues Pereyra. He lifed in Bourdeaux, and died ill the year 1806. 
at the age of thirty-five years, of a broken heart. 

* 






[ 353 ] 

have exercised after him, you have accomplished an act of 
justice. A thousand thanks to you for it !— Such a task re- 
quired courage : you have the merit, Sir, of having under- 
taken it. Allow me, however, to observe to you, that the 
testimony borne to my father's talents and glory is beneath 
reality. You have doubtless been ignorant of the success 
he obtained at Paris in that sublime art, so important to 
mankind. The writings of that time have vouched for the 
existence of the same, marking the place of my father in 
the first rank. His method for the beneficent institution of 
the Deaf and Dumb, differed from that of Messrs. de L'Epce 
and Sicard. Those skilful professors have undoubtedly 
evinced great talents ; but they have not attained that de- 
gree of perfection which my father had attained ,• they have 
not, like him, caused their pupils to speak. 

Notwithstanding such authentic facts, several of your 
readers have started some doubts as to the legitimacy of 
your reclamation. I pardon such an error in those who are 
not acquainted with the testimonies I am to produce. Ne- 
vertheless, I hope I will be able to set right, without much 
exertions, the most obstinate sceptic, when I have published 
the historical memoir with which I am actually occupied. 
This memoir will contain nothing but facts, extracted from 
the works of Buftbn, Mairan, Lecat, Dumarsais, J. J. 
Rousseau, Bougainville, St. Foix, the History of the Aca- 
demy of Sciences for many years, &c. I will explain in this 
work, the motives which have induced me hitherto to be si- 
lent on the subject — motives, however, easy to be guessed at. 

Accept, Sir, the tribute of my gratitude, and the homage 
of my affectionate sentiments. 

(Signed) J. D. J. PEREYRA. 

Bourdeaux, 28th Pluvoise, (Feb.) 1806. 

The preceding letters were printed simultaneously with 
others written by gentlemen of high standing in the repub- 
lic of letters at Bourdeaux j all which irrefragibly prove, 

V v 



t 334 j 

that no man in France, either heforc or after Mr. Pereyra's 
time, was ever capahle of making the Deaf and Dumh speak, 
or discourse in a correct and audible manner, that art hav- 
ing been wholly and exclusively possessed by Mr. Pereyra, 
as an invaluable gift of a kind, bounteous, and divine Pro- 
vidence. 

To the preceding documents and vouchers, so completely 
and satisfactorily evidencing the miracles operated by such 
a highly precious art, I will only subjoin a judgment passed 
on the same, by a most able, competent, and impartial 
judge,* with which I will conclude this brief notice of Mr. 
Pereyra's skill in the sublime science in question. 

" The habit we are in (says the Abbe Deschamps) of 
hearing it said that the Deaf and Dumb cannot speak, be- 
cause they cannot hear — the immense time that has elapsed 
before it was thought their unfortunate state might be alle- 
viated by a proper education — are the real causes which 
often prove a hindrance to our crediting truths announced to 
us respecting this subject. Nevertheless, the astonishing 
prodigies worked by Mr. Pereyra, are speaking testimonies 
of it. The public papers resound with well-deserved praises 
of Mr. Pereyra. The Academy of Sciences, that Society so 
well known for the vast extent of the learning of its mem- 
bers, has thrice recorded in its annals the just trihutes such 
an illustrious institutor was entitled to receive. The learn- 
ed naturalist BufFon, sheds upon Mr. Pereyra's labours the 
glory due to him. Mr. Lecat, in his tract on Sensations, 
joins with those great men in applauding the success and the 
superior talents of the learned Jew. The present generation 
earnestly confirms those authentic testimonies borne to me- 
rit, and future generations will envy us the good luck of 
having possessed him. His name will be handed down to 
the remotest posterity. He has indeed acquired immor- 
tality," &c. &c. 

* Education des sourds-muets, par L'Abbe Deschamps. 



[ 355 ] 

The preceding compilation, translated from the original, 
on the learned, worthy, and illustrious J. R. Pereyra, is 
made by his obscure, humble, and admiring nephew, 

J. A. DELEON. 



No. 5. 

EXPLANATION OF THE MAP OF THE EAR. 

The car is the organ of hearing, and when its parts be- 
come deranged, injured, or diseased, deafness ensues, and 
the person so affected becomes mute, or in common accepta- 
tion Dumb. Under such circumstances, the unfortunate 
person loses that correspondence or sympathetic associ- 
ation which exists between the organs of hearing and speech, 
whereby the latter are rendered inactive and silent. The 
sound of the human voice, when perfect, consists of modu- 
lated tones ; to produce which, the person speaking must 
hear, in order to vary the tones and produce harmonious 
articulation. Hence we find, that a deaf person does not 
speak, because he cannot hear ; and although it is very pos- 
sible he may be taught to speak by imitation, yet the voice 
is monotonous or inharmonious for want of the ear to regu- 
late it. Thus it would appear, that hearing is absolutely 
necessary to smooth and harmonious articulation, but not to 
simple utterance or speech, since practice has confirmed the 
belief, that in most cases the Deaf and Dumb may be learn- 
ed to speak. 

The organ of hearing is so essential, and withal so deli- 
cate, that it is strongly protected in a hard and bony case ; 
but notwithstanding it is well shielded from external injury, 
accidents will reach and disease assail it. Hence in every 
society of human beings, there will be Deaf Mutes. They 
are more numerous than most people imagine. But if we 
consider the causes which operate in producing this unfortu- 
nate condition, the surprise excited by the fact wiU mode- 
rate by the inquiry. 



[ 356 ] 

Human nature is frail, and at all times subject to acci- 
dent, disease, and death. Thus •« in the midst of life we arc 
in death." Instead of being surprised at this, we should ra- 
ther exclaim with the Psalmist, 

" Strange that a harp of thousand strings 
Should keep in tune so long." 

We should be led to these reflections upon examining the 
structure and delicacy of the organ of hearing, as display- 
ed in the annexed map of the human ear, and hence not 
wonder at the numerous causes which affect this organ and 
produce deafness. 

Deafness is sometimes connate, and generally supposed in 
such cases to proceed from original defect, or malconforma- 
tion of the ear. These cases are numerous, and thought to 
be irremediable. But it is doubtful whether some of them 
do not happen from causes at or subsequent to birth, and 
before the infant acquires the use of its voeal organs. If 
such should be the case, there may be some prospect of re- 
lief; and this opinion is strengthened by observations on 
some of the Deaf and Dumb pupils of this Institution, which 
now exceed fifty. 

The numerous ills which " flesh is heir to," and the va- 
rious accidents of life, may fall upon the organ of hearing. 
Concussion of the brain, blows on the head, fractures of the 
bone, may produce deafness ; and if they happen in early 
age, the child becomes Dumb, or is ever after a Mule. Even 
though it had begun to speak, it soon ceases to exercise the 
organs of speech, as all things around are wrapped in pro- 
found silence. Extraneous substances lodged within the 
passage to the ear, also occasion distress and deafness ; and 
the natural secretion of wax within the ear, when accumu- 
lated, often operates as an extraneous body. Insects may 
penetrate the ear and destroy the hearing. 

The most fruitful source of deafness, however, arises after 
birth; from the various diseases to which the human frame 



[ 357 ] 

is subject. Fevers and inflammation are the most common. 
Measles, scarlet fever, small-pox, inflammations in the 
throat, tonsils, nose, and the ears themselves, are often the 
operating causes ; and though they frequently impair the 
organs of hearing beyond the possibility of recovery, yet we 
know that all are not beyond the power of relief. 

With age comes infirmity, and deafness often warns us of 
approaching dissolution. Though the deafness of age does 
not produce dumbness as in children, yet it is distressing to 
all social beings, and generally produces silcn<e and reserve. 
It has in all grown persons a marked effect upon the speech, 
in producing a low and monotonous voice. Deafness from 
age is the least likely to be removed by curative means. 

The Directors of the New-York Institution for instruct- 
ing the Deaf and Dumb, in their attention to this subject had 
two distinct objects in view. The first was, to instruct them 
where deafness had become confirmed in childhood, and it 
was impossible to have them taught in the usual way ; and 
the second was, to have such attention paid to the organs of 
hearing, as to give the pupils every chance of restoration. 
They have accordingly appointed a Physician to attend to 
their ordinary sickness, and do what may be safely done for 
restoring them to the enjoyment of the human voice and of 
human society. Called upon in that capacity, the Physician 
to the Institution gives the following explanation of the an- 
nexed Engraving of the Ear. 

It is an enlarged view of the organ of hearing and its 
appendages, which may be divided into their external and 
internal par(s. The external parts are, the auricle, the mea- 
tus audiiorius, and the Eustachian tube. The internal are, 
the tympanum, with its membrane and bones, and the laby- 
rinth, with its foramina, membranes, and cavities. 

The auricle or external ear, collects the vibrations of 
sound. These are compressed at the concha, or commence- 
ment of the auditory passage, whieh is somewhat funnel 
shaped, from whence they pass through the meatus audito- 



rius to (he membrana tympani, commonly culled the dun 
of the ear, behind which lies the proper oi^an of hearing. 
The Eustachian tube is a narrow passage* with a trumpet. 
like opening, commencing in the pharynx or back part of 
the mouth, a little above the lower passage of the nose, and 
passing obliquely upwards to the internal ear. Hearing is 
increased by the passage of sounds through the Eustachian 
tube ; and hence a person iutent upon hearing, not only- 
stands auribus ercclis, (with pricked up ears,) but opens his 
mouth, to receive the strongest impression. The meatus 
auditorius and Eustachian tube are both laid open in the 
above map, to show their cavities. The cerumen, or wax of 
the ear, is secreted from small glands in the auditory pas- 
sages. 

The Eustachian tube opens into the tympanum, or ca- 
vity of the internal ear. This cavity is separated from the 
meatus auditorius by means of the membruna lyjnpani, or 
drum of the ear, which is stretched across the passage. The 
cavity of the tympanum contains four small bones, which are 
not the least curious of the wonderful structure of this or- 
gan. The malleus is attached to the membrane of the tym- 
panum, and with its muscles produce a tension or relaxation 
of that membrane. Articulated with the malleus at its up- 
per extremity is another small bone, of a similar shape, 
called the incus. To the small end of the incus is attached 
a very small bone, nearly round, and from its shape denomi- 
nated os orbiculare. The fourth bone is the stapes, or stir- 
rup, with one end united to the os orbiculare, and the other 
to the foramen ovale, by means of a membranous lining. 
The stapes is situated transversely to the cavity of the tym- 
panum, and from its slight attachment to the neighbouring 
parts, sometimes from disease falls into the Eustachian tube, 
and is discharged by the mouth. 

The labyrinth of the internal ear is so called from its 
intricate winding passages, through which sounds are re- 
flected, and their effect increased. It consists of the vesti- 



[ 359 j 

bule, with its three semi-circular canals, and the spiral cavi- 
ties of the cochlea. Within the cavity of the tympanum are 
two foramina, which lead to the different parts of the laby- 
rinth. The foramen rolundum communicates with the 
lower range of the cochlea, bi't is closed hy a fine membrane 
ahout the middle of the passage ; so that the external air 
which passes through the Eustachian tuhr into the tympa- 
num, does not reach the cavities of the labyrinth. The fo- 
ramen ovale is also protected hy a memhrane, and the bot- 
tom of the stapes covers it. At the top of the tympanum is 
a broad and short passage leading to the mastoid cells, which 
are thought to assist hearing by forming a kind of echo. 
The vestibule is a cavity situated behind the foramen ovale, 
and almost round. It is covered with a membranous lining, 
filled with numerous blood vessels. The three semi-circu- 
lar canals diverge from the vestibule, and arc filled with a 
peculiar fluid. There are eight small foramina or openings 
belonging to the vestibule : five of them communicate with 
different parts of the semi-circular canals, one leads to the 
upper range of the cochlea, and two serve for the transmis- 
sion of nerves, which branch from the portio mollis, or soft 
portion of the auditory nerve. 

The cochlea is opposite to the semi-circular canals. It 
is so called from its resemblance to the internal spiral con- 
tortions of a snail shell, and is divided into two parts, an up- 
per and a lower range. There is a small foramen or open- 
ing from the vestibule into the upper range, and another 
from the foramen rotundum into the lower range, thus con- 
necting the different parts of the labyrinth together. 

The nerves which originate from the brain, pass in pairs 
to the different organs which they influence. The seventh 
pair are the auditory nerves, particularly so called, and are 
divided as they pass from the brain into two portions. The 
largest and uppermost is called the porlio mollis, or soft por- 
tion of the auditory nerve, and is considered as the nerve 
particularly belonging to and influencing the organ of hear 



[ 300 ] 

ing. The distribution of its branches to the minutest fila- 
ments, is confined to the labyrinth, its vestibule, cochlea, 
and semi-circular canals. The portio dura, or hard portion 
of the auditory nerve, is distributed to the meatus auditorius, 
and other parts of the ear. 

The membrane, or drum of the ear, is supplied with 
nervous energy from the chorda tympani, which passes over 
the membrane like the chord at the bottom of a drum, and 
has its origin from a branch of the fifth pair of nerves which 
supply the organs of speech. After crossing the drum of 
the ear, the chorda tympani unites with the portio dura of 
the auditory nerve, and thus by its association forming that 
necessary correspondence between the organs of hearing and 
of speech. 

There are, moreover, blood vessels which distribute 
their branches to the different parts of the ear, and supply 
it with that necessary fluid, to promote warmth and secre- 
tion. When the organs of hearing become diseased, the 
pulsation of the arteries sometimes causes distressing noises 
in the head, which are difficult to be removed. 

The very extraordinary and delicate structure of the 
organ of hearing is secured in a cavity of the temporal bone, 
called the petrous, or rocky portion, on account of its com- 
parative hardness. It would thus appear to be a very essen- 
tial organ, as it is more securely protected than the brain 
itself. How thankful should we be who enjoy our hearing 
in perfection, and participate in that divine blessing ! espe- 
cially when we see so many around us, whose hearing is so 
impaired as to render them mute, and totally incapable of 
restoration. 






-j_i_ iram: iii' n— ! n |— r- 



Maseoiticam/xj 

x/tipes Foramen ivit/r . 

Os ordicaJare,. ,^_^ ircular cantdr. 



VeetibuU. 




[ 361 ] 
No. 6. 

OBSERVATION'S AND CORRESPONDENCE ON THE NATURE AND 
CURE OF DEAFNESS, AND OTHER DISEASES OF THE EARS. 

Dr. Samuel Akerly, Physician to the New-York Insti- 
tution for the Instruction of the Deaf and Dumb, may be 
consulted in eases of Deafness and other diseases of the 
Ears, at his residence, No. 72 Chatham-street, New- York. 

Having paid particular attention to the cure of Deafness 
and diseases of the Ears, he is enabled, from his knowledge 
of the anatomy and structure of the Human Ear, to give 
satisfactory explanations of the various affections of that de- 
licate organ, which requires to be treated with care and 
nicety, and occasionally to be strengthened by constitutional 
as well as local remedies. A powerful incentive to have 
more attention paid to the organ of hearing than has here- 
tofore been the case, arises from the fact, that all the Deaf 
and Dumb were not born so, many becoming Deaf from 
sickness and diseases of the Ears, and Dumbness being the 
necessary consequence. 

The following are some of the affections to which the 
Ears are liable, all of which have a tendency to produce 
Deafness — viz. 

1. Inflammation in the Eustachian Tubes, or inner pas- 

sages to the Ears. 

2. Obstructions in the Eustachian Tubes. 

3. Inflammation in the Meatus Auditorius, or outer pas- 

sage of the Ear. 

4. Obstructions in the outer passage, from hardened wax, 

or thickened matter, &c. 

5. Abscesses in the Tympanum. 

6. Abscesses in the Meatus Auditorius. 

7. A morbid or bad secretion of wax in the Ears. 

8. A diminished secretion of wax. 

9. A want of secretion, or dryness in the Ears. 

10. Ulcerations and a discharge of matter from the Ears* 

11. Fungous Excrescences in the Ear. 

Ww 



L M2 J 

12. Foreigu substances in the Ear, as peas, beans, shells, 

paper, &c. pressed in by children. 

13. Insects in the Ear, as worms, bugs, flies, ticks, and 
other insects, which creep in while the person is asleep. 

1+. Noises of various kinds in the head. 
15. Ear-Ache accompanying some of the foregoing affec- 
tions. 

These numerous diseases of the Ear require a treatment 
as different as they are various, and as nice a discrimination 
as any other class of diseases to which the human frame is 
subject. It must therefore be evident, that no single remedy 
or nostrum is applicable to diseases where their causes, 
symptoms, and effects, are so diversified ; as may be well 
imagined, by examining the annexed Diagram, or Map of 
the Human Ear, upon an enlarged scale. 

Dr. Akerly has found by experience, that Deafness from 
hardened or accumulated wax in the Ears, is easier cured 
than running of matter from the Ears, and the latter more 
so than nervous Deafness : but be has been enabled to afford 
relief in cases of these three principal divisions of diseases 
of the organs of hearing. He has cases in reserve, for some 
future publication, on the Diseases of the Ear. In the mean- 
time, he refers to Mr. Henry Remsen, Captain John Rooke, 
Mr. Isaac Pierson, Mr. John Franklin, Mr. John Slidcll, 
Mr. Henry Post. jun. Mr. Ithamer Osborn, and others, who 
have had their children or themselves relieved of affections 
of the Ear. 

The following extracts from the Reports to the Legisla- 
ture, will show what has been the result of attention to one 
of the Deaf and Dumb pupils at the New-York Institution. 

Extract from the Report to (he Legislature of New-Fork? 
made ist of January, 1820. 
« James Maddock, of Peterboro, Madison County, New- 
York, is 8 years old, and was received into this Institution 
in May, 18 '9. His deafness was caused by sickness at four 
months old, followed by fits. At the age of 20 months, he 



[ 363 ] 

appeared to be totally deaf. Sometimes, however, his hear- 
ing would in a measure return ; and he had been taught to 
speak a number of words, which were uttered in a low mo- 
notonous tone. These periods, however, were so seldom and 
so short, that his parents found it impossible to impart to 
him the rudiments of learning in the ordinary way, and ac- 
cordingly sent him to this Institution. 

" He has been under the operation of remedies for tea 
weeks, since which his hearing has been quickened and very 
much improved. During this time he has been practised in 
elocution, by Mr. Horace Loof borrow, who is very sensible 
of the boy's improvement. His ears were at first in a dull 
and torpid state. There was no secretion in one, and the 
other was filled with black indurated cerumen. The secre- 
tion is now improving and much more natural. He speaks 
audibly and distinctly bis letters and single words. Mr. 
Roger Maddock, on a late visit to New York, was much 
gratified with his son's improvement in hearing and speech, 
which was very evident to him. 

« There appears to be no radical defect in the organ of 
hearing, nor want of energy in the auditory nerves. There 
is nothing to obviate, but a tendency in the external passage 
to the ears to relapse into a morbid state of secretion. By 
attention to the means which will prevent that, James Mad- 
dock will, by practice, completely recover his hearing, and 
become a social and speaking being, and no longer be a Deaf 
Mute." 

The above is my report on the case to the Directors of 
the New-York Institution for the Deaf and Dumb, and in- 
corporated in their annual report to the Legislature. 

During the winter nothing was done for Maddock, but in 
the spring and summer of 1820, attention was occasionally 
bestowed upon him, to keep his ears in a clean and healthy 
state ; and in the autumn his father withdrew him from the 
Institution. 

Mr. Maddock's letter of thanks to me was annexed, as a 
document to the annual report to the Legislature, dated 1st 
January, 1821, and is as follows : 



[ 304 ] 

" Pctcrboro, (Madison County.) T)ec. 8/7i, 1820. 
<« Sir. — When on my passage from New-York to Albany, 
I thought it my duty to write you on the subject of my son's 
recovering his hearing, on my arrival at home. I found a 
letter from you requesting such a one from me. Whether 
the letter I wrote was such as answered your expectations, 
I do not know; but I am now willing to say, that while my 
son remained under your care, his hearing y^vx much im- 
proved, and I think he can now hear with the left ear as 
quick as ordinary persons, but not quite so well with the 
other. I must repeat, that I feel myself under the greatest 
obligation to you for your attention, and have the greatest 
reason to expect that it will produce the most lasting benefit 
to my son. I also feel thankful for the advice given in your 
letter as to the future treatment of James. I dare not ven- 
ture to send him to school, but must needs have him con- 
stantly with me. As far as is practicable, I observe the di- 
rections you have given, although 1 find it frequently very 
burthensome to give that attention to him which is neces- 
sary. There can be no question, that there are instances 
in which an attention to the ears will remove the cause of 
deafness, and the experiment on my son is proof in point. 
"We had resorted to many measures recommended by various 
persons, without being sensible of any benefit, until he was 
placed at the Institution. Mrs. Maddock joins me in senti- 
ments of gratitude and respect. 

« ROGER MADDOCK. 
« To Dr. Samuel Jlkerly, Physician to the 

JV. Y. Institution for the Leaf and Dumb." 

" The original letter, from which the foregoing was co- 
pied, has been examined by me, and is now in the possession 
of Dr. Akerly. 

« SAMUEL L. MITCHILL, 
" Prcs'dt. of the Institutionfor the Deaf and Dumb. 
"New-York, 17th Feb. 1831." 



[ 365 ] 

George Holkios, another one of the Deaf and Dumb pu- 
pils, was cuieil of a long standing diseharge from the ears, 
but his hearing was not restored. 

Among the eases of nervous deafness, often so distressing 
and so difficult to cure, the following may claim a place. 
The certificate was sent to me with an apparent intention to 
have it published in the newspapers, which, however, 1 have 
declined. 

" This is to certify to whomsoever it may concern, that I 
have been very much relieved of hardness of hearing, by Dr. 
Samuel Akerly, Physician to the New- York Institution for 
the Instruction of the Deaf and Dumb. Being on the point 
of departure for Europe, and feeling grateful for the benefit 
I have received, I take the liberty of making it publicly 
known, that others similarly situated may know where to 
seek and find relief. I have been deaf for nearly four years, 
occasioned by a cold, and my hearing was so bad that I could 
not hear ordinary conversation, and therefore avoided com- 
pany, as I had no inclination to speak when I could not hear 
what was said. I could not hear a watch tick, unless when 
close to my ear, and now I can hear it held in my hand at the 
distance of two feet. My deafness was of that kind, that 
the Physicians whom I consulted called nervous deafness, 
attended with dryness of the ears and noise in the head. 

« E. BEMENT. 

"New-York, 21st July, 1820." 

The method of giving advice at a distance, may be ascer- 
tained by the following letters, in answer to applications for 

relief. 

New-Fork. Ith September, 1820. 
Dear Sir,— It is impossible to determine the proper re- 
medy applicable to Miss P 's case of deafness, without 

further information than that communicated. She has writ- 
ten for medicine, under the impression that deafness is the 
same in all persons, and that the same remedy is applicable 
to all cases. She will be undeceived in this particular, if 



I 366 j 

you enclose to her my circular. I am not in the practice of 
preparing medicines, and sending them oft, to be applied to 
cases of deafness indiscriminately. In other cases oi disease 
good remedies sometimes fail for the want of their judicious 
application ; so they may in deafness. It is not only the re- 
medy, but the particular application and met bod ol using it, 
that constitutes its value ,• and, by daily observation, to know 
how to modify it, so as to suit the circu distances of the case 
as they occur. With the same remedy a patient might de- 
ceive himself, for a want of the knowledge of the object in 
using it, or, in medical language, of the indications of cure. 
In some cases, however, where the patient eould not leave 
home, I have been consulted, and explained my method of 
applying the remedies to a Physician near the patient, who 
was informed of the prescriptions, and who was to apply 
them. But the want of apparatus and instruments, and 
practical dexterity, are apt to put both the patient and Phy- 
sician out of patience, where he has not devoted himself to 
the subject. I would rather, both on my own account, as 
well as for the greater certainty of relief, have the personal 
attendance on the patient. 

You may state to Miss P , that there are three princi- 
pal kinds of deafness, ail of which have more or less variety 
and modifications. If you propose the following queries to 
her, I shall be enabled, on receipt of her answers, and a con- 
sulting fee, to give such an opinion on the case as 1 believe 
will be agreeable and satisfactory to her. 

How long have you been deaf? 

Was it caused by a cold, or sickness, or sore throat ? 

"What is the degree of hearing left ? 

How far off* can jou hear a watch tick ? 

Can you hear a watch tick when held in the mouth ? 

Required the age and general state of health. 

Have you ever had gatherings in the ears ? 

Are you troubled with ear-ache ? 

Do you wear a cap or ribband over the ears ? 

Are you troubled with cold feet ? 



[ 367 J 

i>o you lake snuff? 

What colour is the moisture or wax in the ears I 
Arc you liberal in the use of strong tea or coffee ? 
Docs the wax in the cars dry on the passage, and become 
scaly ? 

I am, Sir, respectfully yours, &c. 

SAMUEL AKERLY. 
To Mr. D , of Virginia. 

New-York, 1st November, 1820. 
Sir, — Your case of deafness is one of those called nervous, 
and is more difficult to cure than those which arise from 
hardened wax, or a running of matter from the ears. Both 
of these I can cure in a given time j but in the former there 
is greater variety and diversity, and consequently the time 
required to produce a salutary effect, cannot be at first as- 
certained. Practical experiments, under the care of a ju- 
dicious Physician, must determine the probable time that the 
remedies I shall propose will take to produce the desired 
effect. I have reason to believe, that a favourable impres- 
sion may be made upon your organs of hearing ; but perse- 
verance and steady attention will be required, and it may 
take more than the whole of the warm season of 1821. Let 
me not discourage you, however, by unfortunate anticipa- 
tions — though if I should promise you a hasty or certain 
cure, I should do you and myself injustice. If the object to 
be obtained is at all desirable, it is not the less valuable if it 
arrives slowly and gradually. I know there is a difficulty 
in commanding the attention and perseverance of a patient 
in the application of remedies to a chronic disease, and such 
nervous deafness must be considered ; but as hearing is so 
essential to our social existence, I trust that the means will 
be perseveringly applied. Warm weather being the best 
season to apply the remedies, you should not begin till next 
spring. I feel encouraged, from your good state of health 
and the strength of your constitution, in having entirely 
overcome the paralytic affection. The nervous debility 



I 36ft ] 

which yet adheres to the organ of hearing, may possibly be 
removed by the following means. 

These means may be considered as, 1st, External reme- 
dies — 2d, Internal remedies — 3d, Agents for the application 
of these remedies — and, 4th, Things to be avoided. 

1. External remedies. 

The external remedies are those which may be usefully 
applied to the external ear. The object to be obtained by 
them in your case, is, to produce an excitement or an action 
upon the surface in the neighbourhood of the external e. r, 
and thereby relieve that internal action of the blood vessels 
which causes the distressing noises in your head. These 
arise from arterial pulsations in the internal ear ; and as 
blisters and sinipisms in other diseases relieve by producing 
a determination to the surface, so may the external reme- 
dies I shall propose relieve that internal action which pro- 
duces tinnitus auriutn. For this purpose, I have used tinc- 
ture of soap, eau de Cologne, spirits of camphor, tincture of 
cuntharides, and oliaters. 

The tincture of soap may be used daily to wash the cars, 
and have it well rubbed on behind them, on and about the 
petrous portion of the temporal bone. The eau de Cologne 
and spirits of camphor uiaj be used in the same way. But 
if the parts should become accustomed to their stimulating 
effects, the tincture of eantharides will excite more action, 
and if repeated, even draw a blister. A blister may be occa- 
sionally applied behind the ears, alternately with the other 
applications. 

2. Internal remedies. 

By internal remedies, I do not mean those which are to 
be taken into the stomaeh, but such as are applied to the 
ears by means of a syringe through the meatus auditorius. 
Our object here is to act upon the relaxed and torpid organs, 
by injecting into the ears mildly stimulating and oleaginous 
preparations. Among those which I use, I send you a sam- 
ple of the three best for nervous deafness, and the recipe by 
which they are prepared. Either of these may be used with 



[ 3G9 J 

advantage, by injecting them into Ibe ears daily with a small 
ivory syringe, and then cleaning 'hem out after the manner 
herein directed, with eolton on a probe. I would prefer 
your using these internal remedies as follows : 

The materials of No. 3 separate on standing still, and 
should he shaken togclher before use. In the evening, drop 
into the ears eight or ten drops of this mixture, and stop 
them up with wool, so that it does not run out at night when 
in bed. f n the morning syringe with No. 1 or 2, and elean 
them out, and leave the ears open during the day, to have 
the benefit of sounds, unless the weather should be cold and 
blustering, when they must be guarded with wool. 
3. Jlgents to apply the remedies. 

The Crst of these is a small ivory syringe. The head 
should be inclined on a table ; the injeetion blood-warm, 
poured into the passage of the ear. and then the syringe ap- 
plied and worked gently for a minute or two. The head may 
be then quickly tinned over a spitting box, and the injection 
suffered to escape. In using the syringe, care should be ta- 
ken not to use it too long or too forcibly, as injury may arise 
from the violence, causing dizziness or vertigo as the first 
effects. 

The next operation is to clean the ears out with a probe. 
For this purpose I have short probes, about two and a half 
inches long, with one end of an octagonal shape, that they 
may be easily turned in the fingers. The end introduced 
into the ear is guarded with cotton rolled on, and projecting 
a quarter of an inch beyond the metal, so that when it is 
turned around to clean the sides of the passage, the hard sub- 
stance does not come in contaet with the delicate membra- 
nous lining of the passage, or of the drum of the ear. When 
the cotton becomes wet, it is to be removed and renewed. 

Cotton is most frequently used to stop the ears, to guard 
them from cold ; but I prefer wool, as it is a non-conductor 
of heat, and consequently keeps the cars warm, whereas 
eotton being a good conductor of heat, causes it to escape, 

Xx 



I 370 ] 

and is therefore not so good as wool for our purpose. Cot- 
ton should only be used to clean the ears. I enclose you a 
probe armed with cotton, more clearly to explain the method 
of using it. 

4. Things to be avoided. 

Every thing that produces excitement, or a determination 
of blood to the head, increases the noise in the cars. Aio- 
lent exercise, a full meal, liquors, strong tea and coffee, have 
an effect upon the nervous system, and are therefore to be 
used in moderation. Electricity is recommended by some 
authors in nervous deafness, but my practice confirms me in 
a contrary opinion. I would advise you not to employ it as 
an agent in your cure. 

The result of the puncture of the tympanum in one of 
your ears is sufficient, I hope, to deter you from a similar 
operation in the other. Yours is not the only case I have 
seen in which it has been unsuccessful. Wright, a late 
English author on Deafness, condemns the practice, and 
says that it universally fails, though it has been recom- 
mended by Astly Cooper, a celebrated Surgeon of London. 
The rigidity of the scar formed on the drum by the healing 
of the puncture, will render that ear less susceptible of im- 
provement. 

Now, Sir, after this detail of proceeding under the differ- 
ent remedies proposed, ccc. I will state how you may make 
a daily use of the means. I suppose the climate at New- 
Orleans will allow you to commence in March, though it 
would not here until the latter part of April, or first of May. 

Begin then as follows : — At night on going to bed, let 
your wife, or some one else, drop into your ears eight or ten 
drops ot the injection No. 3, and then stop them with wool. 

In the morning when you rise, wash the auricles (ears) 
and behind them, by the aid of a sponge, with either of the 
four liquids mentioned under the head of external remedies. 
This operation you can perform yourself, and will take up 
no more time than washing the hands and face. If you 



[ 371 ] 

should apply a blister, let it be at night, and of course the 
other applications would be omitted till the blister was 
healed. 

After breakfast, your Physician will remove the wool, and 
fill the ears with injection No. 1 or 2, warmed. Then after 
syringing and emptying the contents, let him wipe them out 
elean with the probe armed with cotton, as above stated. 
The ears are then left open and clean for the services of the 
•lay, and the means are again applied at night. These are 
the remedies and means that, from my view of your case, 
are calculated to give you relief. I have endeavoured to be 
explicit, as you requested; but if I have not been so, I hold 
im self ready to supply any thing omitted, or to answer any 
•suggestion which the ease may give rise to, either to your- 
self or your attending Physician. 

I am, with respectful consideration, 

S. AKERLY. 

To Mr. S , New -Orleans. 



New-Fork, May 1st, 1821. 
Sir, — I have received your letter, requesting an opinion 
whether it is possible to restore to hearing and speech a 
person who is Deaf and Dumb, and also whether a person 
so restored has a finer sense of hearing than people in gene- 
ral ? and if so, what encouragement can be given in relation 
to your son, who is Deaf and Dumb ? — These questions, I 
perceive, are suggested by a paragraph which has appeared 
in our newspapers, copied from a French paper, as follows : 
" The Journal, the narrator of the muse, relates a circum- 
stance highly important for humanity. It states, that a 
young Physician had just discovered (October, 1820) a me- 
thod of restoring both hearing and speech to the Deaf and 
Dumb, and had tried it with full success upon two individu- 
als of this description. The editor adds, that the two youths 
who had just experienced the efficacy of the operation, have 
a finer sense of hearing than persons in general." Parental 



[ 372 ] 

anxiety has prompted these questions, and I will endeavour 
to answer them, though you may pot be perfectly satisfied 
with the replies. But I would warn you not to be too san- 
guine, nor to expect miracles from the operation of natural 
causes. The first question I would answer in the affirmative, 
and the second in the negative. As to your son, the answer 
would he hypothetical, and I should therefore decline an opi- 
nion till I became acquainted with all the circumstances 
connected with his deafness. I shall state the facts which 
have led me to these opinions. 

1st. Is it possible to restore to hearing and speech a per- 
son who is Deaf and Dumb ? 

I answer, yes. In some cases it is possible, though not in 
all ; but those cases cannot be determined a priori. A num- 
ber of Deaf and Dumb persons have been restored to hear- 
ing in England and France, as may be seen by consulting 
Wright on Deafness, and Curtis on the Diseases and Physi- 
ology of the Ear, as well as the writings of M. Itard, Phy- 
sician to the Deaf and Dumb Institution in Paris, to be 
found in the Journal des Science Medicale. 

2d. Has a Deaf and Dumb person, after being restored to 
hearing, a finer sense of sound than others ? 

I answer, no : for instead of being more delicate, it is at 
first a painful sensation, as you may well imagine, when a 
person is introduced to the noise and tumultuous sounds of 
active life, after having been excluded from them by a defect 
in hearing. Loud and shrill sounds are generally distressing 
to all who can hear, and particularly so to the Deaf and 
Dumb, or other persons who have been hard of hearing, 
when the sensation is returning. The principle is the same 
when the cataract is removed for blindness. The person 
operated upon can see, but the sensation is so new and pain- 
ful, that it excites inflammation, and he must be shut up in 
a dark room, that light may be gradually introduced to an 
organ unaccustomed to it. 



[ 373 ] 

-I. As to your son, you must give me a detail of his case, 
ami let oic examine tht ears. Where children are horn 
deaf, there is a probability of some organic defect, and less 
chance of restorer ion, though some such have heen restor- 
ed ; hut many children become deaf from sickness, and mav 
he helped. Some of (lie Deaf and Dumb have a partial sense 
of hearing, hut not sufficient to cnahle them to articulate 
distinctly. Deafness in them, as in others who are only 
hard of hearing, has arisen from various causes, sis, measles, 
scarlet fever, small-pox, dropsy in the head, foreign sub- 
stances in the ear, gatherings, running from the ears, har- 
dened wax, no secretion of wax, ece. I make three great 
divisions of the diseases of the ear, viz. nervous deafness, 
otorrhoza, or running from the ears, and deaf ness from har- 
dened wax, all of which have their varieties, and are to be 
treated differently. 

As to the paragraph from the French paper above quoted, 
it appears, that an operation first performed by Surgeon 
Cooper, of London, and frequently repeated in England, has 
at length reached the interior of France, and comes out as 
something new. The puncture of the tympanum, or drum 
of the ear, was suggested by Mr. Cooper some time ago, in 
cases where the Eustachian tubes were obstructed ; and im- 
mediately after the operation, the person had a painful sen- 
sation of hearing, as in eases of seeing, after the depression 
or extraction of the cataract. So it appears from the rela- 
tion of the French cases. But experience in England has 
proved, that this operation is not to be depended upon, or 
has been performed in improper cases * for the result is, that 
although hearing follows the operation, deafness again en- 
sues, and the person operated upon is worse afterwards. I 
have seen two such eases here, where the persons were ope- 
rated upon by a celebrated Surgeon of our own country.. 
The punctured tympanum closed, and leaving a rigid scar 
upon the drum, the hearing was finally impaired instead of 
being improved. Another account which I have seen in 
our papers, stated, that the Deaf and Dumb children ope- 



[ 37* J 

rated upon by the French Surgeon, began immediately to 
speak. This is fallacious, and totally impossible. How can 
a person never accustomed to sound, understand an arbi- 
trary impulse of the breath, which to him would have no 
more meaning than the whistling of the wind ? Sounds, 
signs, and symbols, have no meaning except by convention 
or association. The child, therefore, who, having been Deal' 
and Dumb, is restored to hearing, must be taught to speak 
slowly and gradually, as other children arc taught, before 
he can understand letters, words or sounds spoken by an- 
other. If it were otherwise, what language would the child 

speak ? 

I am, dear Sir, respectfully yours, &c. 

SAMUEL AKERLY. 

To Mr. JL , Ulster County, JV. York. 

In conclusion, Dr. Akerlt would observe, that there are 
some affections of the Ear which he ean certainly cure, 
some which he can only relieve, and some which he cannot 
cure. He pretends to no infallibility — he uses no secret re- 
medies — he imparts to other Physicians his means and me- 
thod of applying them. The merit lie claims, is derived 
from practice and attention to this peculiar class of diseases, 
to which he has been led by his connexion with, and as one 
of the Directors and Physician to, the New-York Institution 
for the Instruction of the Deaf and Dumb. 

The Engravings for this work have been executed prin- 
cipally by Mr. Wm. P. Morgan, on wood. The high style 
of their execution will speak loudly in his praise, though we 
must not forget to name his master, Dr. Anderson, who 
engraved about sixty of the figures. The sickness of Mr. 
Morgan has delayed the publication of this work, which has 
been some time ready for the press ; and now on its com- 
pletion, the meed of praise is justly due to the master and 
his pupil, whose engravings on wood are little short of cop- 
perplate. 



©(QOTMT1 1 



■j * 



Address of the Directors to the Public, 

Report of the Committee of Instruction to the Directors, 

Introductory Observations addressed to the Committee of Instruction, 

Deaf and Dumb Alphabet, 

The Alphabet without the Manual Signs, 

Monosyllables of three letters represented by sensible object 

Objects w^hout their names, 

Names without the objects, . . . . 

The articles prefixed to the names of the preceding objects, 

Adjectives qualifying the preceding substantives, 

The quality of the substantive affirmed by the verb to be, 

Words of four letters represented by sensible objects, 

Objects without their names, 

Names without their objects, 

Preceding words used in short sentences, 

Man and his Correlatives, 

Parts of the human body. 

Pronouns employed in short sentences, 

Verbs expressive of some of the first necessary actions of life 

Words of five letters represented by sensible objects, 

Objects without their names, .... 

Names without their objects, .... 

Preceding nouns in the singular and plural, 

Articles of clothing, 

Exercises on verbs in different tenses, 

Words of six or more letters represented by sensible objects, 

Objects without their names, 

Names without their objects, 

Food, drinks and their kinds, 

Household and table furniture, 

A house, its parts and materials, 

Promiscuous Exercise, 

Numbers, .... 

Compound words represented by sensible objects, 

Objects without tlieir names, 

Names without their objects, 

A school and its appendages, 

Meals and their parts, 

A year and the seasons, 

Water and its conditions, 

Wind and weather, 

Verbs in the present, past and future, 

Prepositions, with a cut to explain them 



CONTENTS. 

I' IQI . 

Adverbs 

Conjunctions, 1. r >8 

Promiscuous Exercises, 160 

Vessels and their kinds, 1**', 

Vessels and their parts, 168 

Promiscuous Exercise, 169 

Exercise on colors, 170 

States of being, 175 

A church and its parts, 17". 

Materials of dress 180 

Employments and trades, * . . 181 

Tools and instruments, 185 

A city and its parts, ......... 187 

Conjugation of verbs, . . . . . . .190 

Verbs in the infinitive mood, 197 

Words in opposition or contrast, 202 

Derivation, 204 

Degrees of comparison, 206 

Formation of the plural, 210 

Masculine and feminine gender, 215 

Exercises on domestic animals, 221 

Interrogation, or manner of asking questions, .... 23.'i 

Abbreviation of words, . . . . . - . . 246 

Ellipsis in sentences, 250 

Quarters of the globe and nations, 258 

Exercise on the words animals, beings, things, objects and kinds, . 260 

Animals classed, ... 264 

First class of animals, quadrupeds, 266 

Second do. birds, 272 

Third do. amphibious animals, .... 280 

Fourth do. fishes, 282 

Fifth do. insects, , . 289 

Sixth do worms, 298 

The vegetable kingdom, 298 



No. 1. — Arrowsmith's work on teaching Deaf Mutes, . . . 323 

No. 2. — A. O. Stansbury's signs for numbers, .... 324 

No. 3. — Notice of the infancy of Massieu, 329 

No. 4. — J. R. Pereyra, a teacher of the Deaf and Dumb, in 1747, . 343 

No. 5. — Explanation of the map of the ear, .... 355 

No. 6. — On the nature and treatment of diseases of the ears, . 361